ほしい

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Alternative spelling
欲しい

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū of 759 CE and the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

Appears to be related to now-obsolete verb 欲る (horu, to wish for, to want). A surface analysis might suggest a derivation from root ho- + adjective-forming suffix しい (shii). However, the verb root is actually hor-, as 欲る (horu) has the 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō, quadrigrade conjugation) pattern, pointing towards a less straightforward derivation.

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of inflected forms of "欲しい"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Continuative (連用形) 欲しく しく
[hóꜜshìkù]
[hòshíꜜkù]
Terminal (終止形) 欲しい [hòshíꜜì]
Attributive (連体形) 欲しい [hòshíꜜì]
Key constructions
Informal negative 欲しくない しくない
くない
[hóꜜshìkùnàì]
[hòshíꜜkùnàì]
Informal past 欲しかった しかった
かった
[hóꜜshìkàttà]
[hòshíꜜkàttà]
Informal negative past 欲しくなかった しくなかった
くなかった
[hóꜜshìkùnàkàttà]
[hòshíꜜkùnàkàttà]
Formal 欲しいです いです [hòshíꜜìdèsù]
Conjunctive 欲しくて しくて
くて
[hóꜜshìkùtè]
[hòshíꜜkùtè]
Conditional 欲しければ しければ
ければ
[hóꜜshìkèrèbà]
[hòshíꜜkèrèbà]

AdjectiveEdit

ほしい (hoshii-i (adverbial ほしく (hoshiku))

  1. wanted, desired, needed
    (わたし)はこの(ほん)()しいです。
    Watashi wa kono hon ga hoshii desu.
    As for me, this book is wanted → I want this book.
    (See usage notes below.)
  2. (after a - verb form) wanted or desirable that someone perform the verb
    (かの)(じょ)()ってほしかった
    Kanojo ni katte hoshikatta.
    It was wanted of her to win → I wanted her to win.
    (See usage notes below.)
Usage notesEdit
  • About ほしい used to describe nouns:
  • About - + ほしい:
    • The agent of the verb can be introduced by either (ni) or (ga).
      (むすめ)(わら)ってほしい。
      Musume ni waratte hoshii.
      I want my daughter to have a happy face.
      (あめ)()ってほしい。
      Ame ga futte hoshii.
      (Lit. "I want the rain to fall") I am waiting for a rain.
    • can be ambiguous when an indirect object is involved, as this also takes .
      ()(とう)さん(えい)()(おし)えてほしい。
      Satō-san ni Eigo o oshiete hoshii.
      I want someone to teach Sato English. (indirect object)
      I want Sato to teach English. (agent)
    • When the subject (the person that wants) is not the speaker, it is introduced by the topic maker (wa).
      (おや)(わたし)にもっとしっかりしてほしい。
      Oya wa watashi ni motto shikkari shite hoshii.
      My parents want me to work harder.
    • ほしい does not express the meaning "someone wants to do something themselves". In that case, the verb suffix たい is usually used instead. Compare:
      (かの)(じょ)(かえ)たい()った。
      Kanojo wa kaeritai to itta.
      She said she wants to go home.
      (かの)(じょ)(かえ)ってほしい
      Kanojo wa kaette hoshii.
      I want her to go home.
  • A related verb denoting willingness ((ほっ)する (hossuru)) exists, but its usage is quite uncommon.
  • Depending on context, the usage of this word could be considered overly direct or childish.
  • When following the ない (nai) form of a verb + (de), this construction means "don't want [someone else] to".
    (きみ)(かえ)ないでほしい
    Kimi wa kaeranaide hoshii.
    I don't want you to go back.
  • This term is commonly spelled in hiragana, with the kanji spelling reserved for formal contexts.
InflectionEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Alternative spellings
乾し飯
乾飯
干し飯
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

/hosi ipi//hosipi//hosifi//hoɕifi//hoɕiː/

Shift from ほしいい (hoshiī)[5][6] due to the prohibition in Old Japanese against word-medial vowel clusters. (See Old_Japanese#Morphophonemics at Wikipedia.)

Ultimately a compound of 干し (hoshi, drying; dried, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 干す (hosu, to dry, to air out)) +‎ (ī, cooked grain (usually rice)).[7][8][2]

First cited in the Nihon Shoki of 720.[5]

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

ほしい (hoshiiほしひ (fosifi)?

  1. [from 720] dried rice (after already being cooked once)
    Synonym: かれいい (kareii)
    • 1883, 雨森芳洲 (Amenomori Hōshū), “飲食”, in 浦瀬裕, editor, 再刊交隣須知 (Saikan kōrin suchi)NDL NLK, volume 3, 外務省 edition:
      (ハツタイ)ホシイ(シロ)()(タウ)ヲマゼテダセ
      Hattai Hoshii ni shirozatō o mazete dase
      Parched rice: Stir a little white sugar into the parched rice and serve it
      강(乾)밥[SIC] 셜당(雪糖)을 타셔 내여라 (original Korean)

Etymology 3Edit

Proper nounEdit

ほしい (Hoshii

  1. 星井: a surname

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
  6. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 (Dejitaru Daijisen)[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months
  7. ^ 干飯・乾飯・糒”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[3] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, →ISBN
  8. ^ 干し飯”, in デジタル大辞泉 (Dejitaru Daijisen)[4] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months