See also: だい and タイ

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Alternative spelling 度い (obsolete)

Generally regarded as a shift from Old Japanese いたし (itasi, painful), modern 痛い (itai).[1] Appears as a verbal suffix from at least The Tale of the Heike completed before 1330. Replaces previous volitional or desiderative suffix まほし (mahoshi).[2]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ta̠i]
  • In Tokyo speech, the accent of the verb construction depends on the suffixed verb:[3]
    • If the suffixed verb is accented, the accent falls on the first mora in the suffix:  [tsùkúꜜrù] (Nakadaka) → くりた [tsùkúrítáꜜì] (Nakadaka)
    • If the suffixed verb is non-accented and the suffix is in the dictionary form (nonpast), the result is either non-accented or accented on the first mora of the suffix: そぶ [àsóbú] (Heiban - [0]) → そびたい [àsóbítáí] (Heiban - [0]) or そびた [àsóbítáꜜì] (Nakadaka). Further conjugation is based on the accented version.

SuffixEdit

たい (-tai-i (adverbial たく (-taku))

  1. Used to form the desiderative of verbs: want (to do); hope (to do)
    ()たいなら()すよ
    yomitai nara kasu yo
    If you want to read it, I can lend it to you.
    (かれ)(ちゅう)(もく)されたい
    kare wa chūmoku saretai
    He wants to gain other people's attention.
    アイスが()たい
    aisu ga tabetai
    I want to eat ice cream.
  2. (only with verb ある, である and honorifics) Expressing a wish of the speaker: I hope that; I wish that
    (しょう)(じき)(もの)がばかを()ない()(なか)でありたい
    shōjikimono ga baka o minai yo no naka dearitai
    I wish in this world the honest people would not suffer losses.
    (べっ)(ぴょう)(さん)(しょう)されたい
    beppyō o sanshō saretai
    Please see the appendix table.

InflectionEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • Attaches to the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verbs. The result is conjugated like an adjective (形容詞) but allows for the combination with nominal particles such as を, unlike regular adjectives.
  • ()たくないshinitaku naido not want to die
    それを()たかったsore o tabetakatta.I wanted to eat that.
  • Except for sense 2 (see above), たい does not express the meaning "someone wants other people to do something". In that case, 欲しい is usually used instead. Compare:
    (かの)(じょ)(かえ)たい
    kanojo wa kaeritai
    She wants to go home.
    (かの)(じょ)(かえ)ってほしい
    kanojo wa kaette hoshii
    I hope she could go home.
  • Verb with たい can sometimes mark the grammatical object with , besides the normal object marker .
    アイス()べたい
    aisu ga tabetai
    I want to eat ice cream.
    アイス()べたい
    aisu o tabetai
    I want to eat ice cream.
  • This word is morphologically an inflectional suffix. It is classified as 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) in traditional Japanese grammar.

See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of たい – see the following entries.
2
[counter] counter for humanoid objects
[noun] body
[noun] form
[noun] (algebra) field (commutative ring with invertible nonzero elements)
3
[conjunction] versus
5
[noun] (grammar) voice - a particular mode of inflecting or conjugating verbs, or a particular form of a verb, by means of which is indicated the relation of the subject of the verb to the action which the verb expresses.
[suffix] (grammar) voice, diathesis
S
[noun] womb
S
[proper noun] Thailand
Alternative spelling
タイ
J
[noun] sea bream (fish of the family Sparidae); porgy
[noun] specifically, the 真鯛(まだ) (mada, red sea bream)
[proper noun] a surname​.
Alternative spelling
タイ
J
[noun] dui (vessel)
他意
[noun] other intention
[noun] ulterior motive
(This term, たい, is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese terms.
For a list of all kanji read as たい, not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as たい.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , , .)

Etymology 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of たい – see 田井.
(This term, たい, is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: 田井.)

Etymology 4Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of たい – see 田居.
(This term, たい, is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: 田居.)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Online Japanese Accent Dictionary (OJAD)