See also: , , , , , and
U+5CA9, 岩
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5CA9

[U+5CA8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5CAA]

Translingual

edit
Stroke order
 

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 46, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 山一口 (UMR), four-corner 22601, composition )

References

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 309, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7985
  • Dae Jaweon: page 609, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 766, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5CA9

Chinese

edit
trad. /*/*/*
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

edit
Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (hill) + (rock).

Originally written as phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ŋraːm) : semantic (hill) + phonetic (OC *ŋam). The variant form first appeared in the clerical script in the Han dynasty era.

Etymology 1

edit

Cognate with (OC *ŋam, “majestic; stern; grave”) and (OC *ŋamʔ, “dignified; majestic”). See for more.

(ái, “cancer”) is a derivative of .

Pronunciation

edit


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (149)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter ngaem
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠam/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚam/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋam/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨm/
Li
Rong
/ŋam/
Wang
Li
/ŋam/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋam/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ngaam4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæm ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ˁr[a]m/ (< uvular?)
English rocky, lofty

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3684
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋraːm/

Definitions

edit

  1. cliff
  2. rock; stone; -ite
  3. mountain peak
  4. cave
  5. tall; steep

Etymology 2

edit
For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“dangerous and important”).
(This character is the simplified and variant traditional form of ).
Notes:

Compounds

edit

References

edit

Japanese

edit

Kanji

edit

(Second grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

edit

Compounds

edit

Etymology 1

edit
Kanji in this term
いわ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi
Alternative spellings

/ipa//ifa//iwa/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū finished some time after 759 CE.[1]

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

(いわ) (iwaいは (ifa)?

  1. rock
    • 1999 July 22, “(がん)(くつ)()(じん)オーガ・ロック [Cave Jinn Ogre Rock]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
      (からだ)(いわ)のため(しゅ)()(たか)い。(ふと)(うで)のひと()りに(ちゅう)()
      Karada ga iwa no tame shubi wa takai. Futoi ude no hitofuri ni chūi.
      Its defence is strong thanks to its rock body. Watch out for a swing of its massive arms.
Derived terms
edit

Etymology 2

edit
Kanji in this term
がん
Grade: 2
kan'on

From Middle Chinese (MC ngaem).

Pronunciation

edit

Affix

edit

(がん) (gan

  1. rock

References

edit
  1. ^
    c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 15, poem 3590:
    , text here
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  4. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

edit

Hanja

edit

(eum (am))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Miyako

edit

Kanji

edit

(Second grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

edit

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *piri (compare 平良 (Pïsara, Hirara) < *pirara), from Proto-Japonic *piri (possibly related to *pira (slope)[1]).

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

(ぴぃし) (psïshi

  1. rock

References

edit
  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas. "A (more) comparative approach to some Japanese etymologies." Studies in Japanese and Korean historical and theoretical linguistics and beyond (2017): 55-64.

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Nôm readings: nham, nhàm, nhem

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.