U+6562, 敢
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6562

[U+6561]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6563]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Mainland China
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing 新字形), the upper left component is written (one stroke).
  • In other regions, the upper left component is written (two strokes) which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.

Han characterEdit

(radical 66, +8, 12 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 11 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 弓十人大 (NJOK) or 一十人大 (MJOK), four-corner 18140 or 18440, composition ⿰⿱(G) or ⿰⿱(HTJKV))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 472, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13260
  • Dae Jaweon: page 825, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1463, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6562

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms second round simplified

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script
     

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *klaːmʔ): semantic (to fight) + phonetic (OC *kaːm).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/m-wam (to dare) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

PronunciationEdit


Note: Southern Sixian kam - variant used for the rhetorical/interrogative adverb.
Note:
  • káⁿ - vernacular (including the rhetorical adverb and "perhaps" in Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou);
  • kám - literary (including the rhetorical adverb and "perhaps" in Xiamen, as well as the rhetorical/interrogative adverb in Taiwan);
  • kiám/kán - variants used for the rhetorical adverb.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kan²¹⁴/
    Harbin /kan²¹³/
    Tianjin /kan¹³/
    Jinan /kã⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /kã⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /kan⁵³/
    Xi'an /kã⁵³/
    Xining /kã⁵³/
    Yinchuan /kan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /kɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /kan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /kan⁴²/
    Chengdu /kan⁵³/
    Guiyang /kan⁴²/
    Kunming /kã̠⁵³/
    Nanjing /kaŋ²¹²/
    Hefei /kæ̃²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃⁵³/
    Pingyao /kɑŋ⁵³/
    Hohhot /kæ̃⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /kø³⁵/
    Suzhou /kø⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /kẽ̞⁵³/
    Wenzhou /ky³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /kɛ³⁵/
    Tunxi /kɛ³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kan⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /kan⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /kɵn²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /kam³¹/
    Taoyuan /kɑm³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm³⁵/
    Nanning /kam³⁵/
    Hong Kong /kɐm³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kam⁵³/
    /kã⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kã⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ka²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑmX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑmX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑmX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kamX/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑmX/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑmX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑmX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gǎn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gǎn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kamX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˁamʔ/
    English dare

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3674
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*klaːmʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. bold; brave; daring
    2. to dare (to); to venture (to)
      我們必須 [MSC, trad.]
      我们必须 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen bìxū gǎn xiǎng, gǎn shuō, gǎn gàn. [Pinyin]
      We must dare to think, speak up and act.
      眼看  ―  Tā bù gǎn zhèng yǎnkàn tā.  ―  He didn't dare to look at her in the face.
      風雨交加夜晚有人出去 [MSC, trad.]
      风雨交加夜晚有人出去 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài nà ge fēngyǔ jiāojiā de yèwǎn, hěn shào yǒurén gǎn chūqù. [Pinyin]
      Very few people ventured to go out on that stormy night.
      飛機飛行 [MSC, trad.]
      飞机飞行 [MSC, simp.]
      gǎn zuò fēijī fēixíng ma? [Pinyin]
      Will you venture a flight in an air plane?
    3. to be sure; to be certain; to bet; to presume
      肯定  ―  gǎn kěndìng  ―  to be sure, to be certain
      /   ―  gǎn shuō  ―  to be sure, to be certain
      解決難題 [MSC, trad.]
      解决难题 [MSC, simp.]
      gǎn shuō nǐ jiějué bù le zhè ge nántí. [Pinyin]
      I bet you can't do this puzzle.
    4. (polite) may I venture
      /   ―  gǎn wèn  ―  may I ask
    5. (literary or Hokkien, Teochew, Taiwanese Hakka, rhetorical question) can it be possible that; how
      alt. forms:
      按呢 [Taiwanese]  ―  Kám thang án-ne? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  How could it be like this?
    6. (archaic or Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou Hokkien) perhaps
    7. (Taiwanese Hokkien and Hakka) Interrogative adverb, placed before the verb to create a yes-no question.
      alt. forms: , ,
      有閒 / 有闲 [Taiwanese]  ―  kám ū-êng? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Are you free?

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. daring, brave, bold
    2. sad, tragic, pitiful

    ReadingsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • New Nelson: 2,350
    • Halpern: 1,706
    • Halpern Learners: 1,121
    • Heisig: 826
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 4i8.5
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: S
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kɑmX).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (かん) (kan

    1. daring; brave; bold

    Derived termsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 감히 (gamhi gam))

    1. Hanja form? of (dare).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (cám, cảm, dám)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.