U+6562, 敢
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6562

[U+6561]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6563]

Translingual

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Stroke order
Mainland China
 

Alternative forms

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  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing 新字形), the upper left component is written (one stroke).
  • In other regions, the upper left component is written (two strokes) which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 66, +8, 12 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 11 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 弓十人大 (NJOK) or 一十人大 (MJOK), four-corner 18140 or 18440, composition ⿰⿱(G) or ⿰⿱(HTJKV))

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 472, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13260
  • Dae Jaweon: page 825, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1463, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6562

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp.

Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *klaːmʔ) : semantic (to fight) + phonetic (OC *kaːm).

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/m-wam (to dare) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT).

Pronunciation

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Note: Southern Sixian kam - variant used for the rhetorical/interrogative adverb.
Note:
  • káⁿ - vernacular (including the rhetorical adverb and "perhaps" in Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou);
  • kám - literary (including the rhetorical adverb and "perhaps" in Xiamen, as well as the rhetorical/interrogative adverb in Taiwan);
  • kiám/kán - variants used for the rhetorical adverb.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kan²¹⁴/
Harbin /kan²¹³/
Tianjin /kan¹³/
Jinan /kã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /kã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kan⁵³/
Xi'an /kã⁵³/
Xining /kã⁵³/
Yinchuan /kan⁵³/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /kan⁵¹/
Wuhan /kan⁴²/
Chengdu /kan⁵³/
Guiyang /kan⁴²/
Kunming /kã̠⁵³/
Nanjing /kaŋ²¹²/
Hefei /kæ̃²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃⁵³/
Pingyao /kɑŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /kæ̃⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /kø³⁵/
Suzhou /kø⁵¹/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ky³⁵/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /kɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan⁴¹/
Xiangtan /kan⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /kam³¹/
Taoyuan /kɑm³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm³⁵/
Nanning /kam³⁵/
Hong Kong /kɐm³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kam⁵³/
/kã⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kaŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /kã⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ka²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kamX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kamX/
Li
Rong
/kɑmX/
Wang
Li
/kɑmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gǎn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gam2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kamX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁamʔ/
English dare

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3674
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*klaːmʔ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. bold; brave; daring
  2. to dare (to); to venture (to)
    我們必須 [MSC, trad.]
    我们必须 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen bìxū gǎn xiǎng, gǎn shuō, gǎn gàn. [Pinyin]
    We must dare to think, speak up and act.
    眼看 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Tā bù gǎn zhèng yǎnkàn tā. [Pinyin]
    He didn't dare to look at her in the face.
    風雨交加夜晚有人出去 [MSC, trad.]
    风雨交加夜晚有人出去 [MSC, simp.]
    Zài nà ge fēngyǔ jiāojiā de yèwǎn, hěn shào yǒurén gǎn chūqù. [Pinyin]
    Very few people ventured to go out on that stormy night.
  3. to be sure; to be certain; to bet; to presume
    肯定  ―  gǎn kěndìng  ―  to be sure, to be certain
      ―  gǎn shuō  ―  to be sure, to be certain
    解決不了難題 [MSC, trad.]
    解决不了难题 [MSC, simp.]
    gǎn shuō nǐ jiějuébuliǎo zhè ge nántí. [Pinyin]
    I bet you can't do this puzzle.
  4. (polite) may I venture
      ―  gǎn wèn  ―  may I ask
  5. (literary or Hokkien, Teochew, Taiwanese Hakka, rhetorical question) can it be possible that; how
    alt. forms: ()
    按呢 [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  Kám thang án-ne? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  How could it be like this?
  6. (archaic or Xiamen, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou Hokkien) perhaps
  7. (Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese Hakka) Interrogative adverb, placed before the verb to create a yes-no question.
    alt. forms: (hán), (gān),
    有閒有闲 [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  kám ū-êng? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Are you free?

Synonyms

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  • (can it be possible that):

See also

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Compounds

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Further reading

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. daring, brave, bold
  2. sad, tragic, pitiful

Readings

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kamX).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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(かん) (kan

  1. daring; brave; bold

Derived terms

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Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 감히 (gamhi gam))

  1. Hanja form? of (dare).

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: cám, cảm, dám

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.