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U+6562, 敢
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6562

[U+6561]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6563]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Mainland China
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing 新字形), the upper left component is written (one stroke).
  • In other regions, the upper left component is written (two strokes) which is the orthodox form found in the Kangxi dictionary.

Han characterEdit

(radical 66, +8, 12 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 11 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 弓十人大 (NJOK) or 一十人大 (MJOK), four-corner 18140 or 18440, composition ⿰⿱(G) or ⿰⿱(HTJKV))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 472, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13260
  • Dae Jaweon: page 825, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1463, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6562

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰɯːm, *kʰreːmʔ, *ɡraːmʔ
*l̥ʰaːms, *klaːmʔ
*l'aːmʔ
*klaːmʔ
*klaːmʔ
*kʰlaːms
*kʰlaːms, *qʰreːmʔ, *hŋraːms
*qʰaːm, *qʰlaːms
*qʰlaːms, *qʰraːms, *qʰraːb
*ŋraːm
*ŋraːm, *ŋamʔ
*qʰraːmʔ
*kjam
*hŋramʔ
*ŋam
*ŋamʔ
*ŋamʔ
*ŋams

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • káⁿ - vernacular;
  • kám - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kan²¹⁴/
Harbin /kan²¹³/
Tianjin /kan¹³/
Jinan /kã⁵⁵/
Qingdao /kã⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kan⁵³/
Xi'an /kã⁵³/
Xining /kã⁵³/
Yinchuan /kan⁵³/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /kan⁵¹/
Wuhan /kan⁴²/
Chengdu /kan⁵³/
Guiyang /kan⁴²/
Kunming /kã̠⁵³/
Nanjing /kaŋ²¹²/
Hefei /kæ̃²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃⁵³/
Pingyao /kɑŋ⁵³/
Hohhot /kæ̃⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /kø³⁵/
Suzhou /kø⁵¹/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /ky³⁵/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /kɛ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan⁴¹/
Xiangtan /kan⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /kam³¹/
Taoyuan /kɑm³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐm³⁵/
Nanning /kam³⁵/
Hong Kong /kɐm³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kam⁵³/
/kã⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kã⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ka²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (143)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑmX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑmX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑmX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kamX/
Li
Rong
/kɑmX/
Wang
Li
/kɑmX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑmX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gǎn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gǎn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kamX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁamʔ/
English dare

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3674
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*klaːmʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to dare (to); to venture (to)
    我們必須 [MSC, trad.]
    我们必须 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen bìxū gǎn xiǎng, gǎn shuō, gǎn gàn. [Pinyin]
    We must dare to think, speak up and act.
    眼看  ―  Tā bù gǎn zhèng yǎnkàn tā.  ―  He didn't dare to look at her in the face.
    風雨交加夜晚有人出去 [MSC, trad.]
    风雨交加夜晚有人出去 [MSC, simp.]
    Zài nà ge fēngyǔ jiāojiā de yèwǎn, hěn shào yǒurén gǎn chūqù. [Pinyin]
    Very few people ventured to go out on that stormy night.
    飛機飛行 [MSC, trad.]
    飞机飞行 [MSC, simp.]
    gǎn zuò fēijī fēixíng ma? [Pinyin]
    Will you venture a flight in an air plane?
  2. to be sure; to be certain
    肯定  ―  gǎn kěndìng  ―  to be sure, to be certain
    /   ―  gǎn shuō  ―  to be sure, to be certain
    解決難題 [MSC, trad.]
    解决难题 [MSC, simp.]
    gǎn shuō, nǐ jiějué bù le zhè ge nántí. [Pinyin]
    I bet you can't do this puzzle.
  3. bold; brave
  4. (Min Nan) Final interrogative particle.

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 難道 (“could it be that; is it possible that”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 莫非,
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 莫非, , 難道
Mandarin Beijing 難道, 難不成,
Taiwan 難道, 難不成
Cantonese Guangzhou 唔通
Hong Kong 唔通
Taishan 唔成, 敢係, 唔得旨, 毋旨, 毋旨估
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian) 無成, 敢講, 敢係
Liudui (S. Sixian) 無成, 敢講, 敢係
Hsinchu (Hailu) 無成, 敢講, 敢係
Dongshi (Dabu) 無成, 敢講, 敢會, 敢係
Hsinchu (Raoping) 無成, 毋成, 敢講, 敢係
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 無敢, 敢講, 敢會, 敢係
Min Nan Xiamen , 總無
Quanzhou , 總無, 攏無
Zhangzhou , 總無
Taipei ,

See alsoEdit

CompoundsEdit

Further readingEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. daring, brave, bold
  2. sad, tragic, pitiful

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • New Nelson: 2,350
  • Halpern: 1,706
  • Halpern Learners: 1,121
  • Heisig: 826
  • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 4i8.5
  1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 감히 (gamhi gam))


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(cám, cảm, dám)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.