See also: ш
U+5C71, 山
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C71

[U+5C70]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C72]
U+2F2D, ⼭
KANGXI RADICAL MOUNTAIN

[U+2F2C]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F2E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(cursive)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 46, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 山 (U), four-corner 22770, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #46, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 307, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7869
  • Dae Jaweon: page 604, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 759, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5C71

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠙸
𡶸
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
 
珠穆朗瑪峰,地球海拔最高的山

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) – three mountain peaks. In the Oracle Bone Script, they were represented by triangles rather than vertical strokes. Compare (qiū), particularly earlier forms.

EtymologyEdit

Unknown – cognates not known outside Sino-Bai. Cognate with Central Bai svrt (mountain) (< Proto-Bai *sro⁴). Starostin compares it with Kayan sʰôn (mountain).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • soaⁿ - vernacular;
  • san - literary.
Note:
  • suan1 - vernacular;
  • sang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂan⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /san²¹/
    Jinan /ʂã²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ʂan²⁴/
    Xi'an /sã²¹/
    Xining /sã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂan⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /san⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /san⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /san⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /san⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ʂã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ʂaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ʂæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /sæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /sɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /sæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /se⁵³/
    Suzhou /se̞⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /sa³³/
    Hui Shexian /sɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /san³³/
    Xiangtan /san³³/
    Gan Nanchang /san⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /san⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑm²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /san⁵³/
    Nanning /san⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /san⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /san⁵⁵/
    /suã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /suã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /saŋ²³/
    /tua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (73)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠɛn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚæn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂəɨn/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃæn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂăn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ srɛn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-ŋrar/
    English mountain, hill

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11052
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. mountain; hill (Classifier: m c;  mn)
        ―  dēngshān  ―  to climb a mountain
    2. hill-shaped object
        ―  bīngshān  ―  iceberg
    3. bundled straw in which silkworms spin cocoons
    4. gable
    5. (Cantonese, Liuzhou Mandarin, Pinghua) tomb; grave
    6. A surname​. Shan

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (さん) (san)
    • Korean: (, san)
    • Vietnamese: sơn ()

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    やま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (やま) (yama

    1. a mountain (large mass of earth and rock) or (large) hill
    2. a mine (excavation usually consisting of small tunnels)
      Synonym: 鉱山 (kōzan)
    3. a heap, pile
    4. the top or high part of an object
      ねじ(やま)
      nejiyama
      thread of a screw
      (ぼう)()(やま)
      bōshi no yama
      crown of a hat
    5. a climax, peak
      Synonyms: クライマックス (kuraimakkusu), 絶頂 (zetchō)
    6. a chance, gamble
    7. a guess, speculation
    8. a crime, criminal case
      Synonym: 犯罪事件 (hanzai jiken)
    9. mountain climbing, mountaineering
      Synonym: 山登り (yamanobori)
    10. Short for 山鉾 (yamaboko): a festival float usually decorated with a (hoko)
    11. (colloquial) Mount Hiei and/or Enryaku-ji
      Antonym: (tera)
    12. (mahjong) a wall, wall tile
    13. (informal) the symbol as used to mark what needs to be reviewed in study
      やま()
      yama o haru
      to mark what needs to be reviewed
      はっ(やま)()った。
      Hatta yama ga atatta.
      My selection of what I needed to review for the test was correct.
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (やま) (yama-

    1. prefix for species that are wild or residing in mountains
    Derived termsEdit

    CounterEdit

    (やま) (-yama

    1. counter for number of stock rise and fall like a mountain (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    2. counter for number of mountains, forests and/or mines
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (やま) (Yama

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠɛn).

    Sometimes spelled with rendaku (連濁), as -zan.

    SuffixEdit

    (さん) (-san

    1. Mount, Mt.
      1. suffix for names of mountains
      2. suffix for a temple's honorific mountain name
        Synonym: 山号 (sangō)
    Derived termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    1. mountain
    2. mine
    3. temple, temple ground
    4. Short for 比叡山 (Hieizan): Mount Hiei

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むれ
    Grade: 1
    Irregular
    Alternative spelling
    牟礼

    From Old Japanese, itself apparently a borrowing from Old Korean.[3][1][4] Compare Middle Korean (mwoy).

    The phonetic man'yōgana spelling 牟礼 for mure appears first in the Kojiki of 720, but instead for the stem of verb 群れる (mureru, to group together).[5] The first instance of this spelling for the mountain sense is in the Heian period, in different 日本書紀私記 (Nihon Shoki Shiki) versions, themselves recompilations of the Nihon Shoki.[3] This reading with this sense apparently arises from the traditional 訓読 (kundoku) of a particular section of the Nihon Shoki, where the written word is read as mure with an apparent meaning of mountain or hill.[6][7]

    NounEdit

    (むれ) (mure

    1. (historical, Ancient Korea) mountain, hill
      Synonyms: (yama, mountain) (general term), (oka, hill) (general term)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    5. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, entry online here
    6. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, entry online here
    7. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, entry online here

    KikaiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠɛn). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: san) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun / (me/moe san))

    1. Hanja form? of (mountain).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やまー, rōmaji yamā)

    1. mountain

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Northern Amami-OshimaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Oki-No-ErabuEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *yama.

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama)

    1. mountain

    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *yama.

    NounEdit

    (yama) (kana やま)

    1. a mountain
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 31)
        伊能知能麻多祁牟比登波多多美許母弊具理能夜麻能久麻加志賀波袁宇受爾佐勢曾能古
        ino2ti no2 matake1mu pi1to2 pa tatami1ko2mo2 Pe1guri-no2-yama no2 kumakasi no2 pa wo uzu ni sase so2no2 ko1
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. a forested area of a mountain for harvesting, hunting, etc.
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 779)
        板盖之黑木乃屋根者近之明日取而持將參來
        itapuki1 no2 kuro1ki2 no2 yane pa yama tikasi asu no2 pi1 to2rite motimawiriko2mu
        Since the mountains are close by, tomorrow I will cut down and bring you rough logs for your wooden roof.[1]
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (yama)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Borrowed from Old Korean 牟禮 (morye).[2][3]

    Compare Middle Korean (mwoy).

    Alternative formsEdit

    • Lua error: not enough memory

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. a hill or mountain
    Usage notesEdit

    No known Early Middle Japanese dictionaries attest the mure spelling phonetically, the earliest being found in the Mito-bon Hei Nihongi Shiki (1678).

    DescendantsEdit
    • Lua error: not enough memory

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of Ōtomo Yakamochi (718-785), (please provide the title of the work), illustrated edition, University of California Press, 1982, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory, page 106
    2. ^ 2006, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory
    3. ^ 1995, Lua error: not enough memory (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBNLua error: not enough memory

    Lua error: not enough memory


    Southern Amami-OshimaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. mountain

    Toku-No-ShimaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. mountain

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory.

    CompoundsEdit

    • See Lua error: not enough memory.

    ReferencesEdit



    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. mountain

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. mountain

    YoronEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. mountain