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See also: ш
U+5C71, 山
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C71

[U+5C70]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C72]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(cursive)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 46, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 山 (U), four-corner 22770, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #46, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 307, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7869
  • Dae Jaweon: page 604, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 759, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5C71

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
 
珠穆朗瑪峰,地球海拔最高的山

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sreːn
*sreːn, *sraːns
*sreːn
*sreːnʔ, *sraːns
*sraːn, *sraːns
*sen
*sen
*sen
*srin

Pictogram (象形) – three mountain peaks. In the Oracle Bone Script, they were represented by triangles rather than vertical strokes. Compare (qiū), particularly earlier forms.

EtymologyEdit

Unknown – cognates not known outside Sino-Bai. Cognate with Central Bai svrt (mountain) (< Proto-Bai *sro⁴). Starostin compares it with Kayan sʰôn (mountain).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • san - literary;
  • soaⁿ - vernacular.
Note:
  • suan1 - vernacular;
  • sang1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂan⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /san²¹/
    Jinan /ʂã²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ʂan²⁴/
    Xi'an /sã²¹/
    Xining /sã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂan⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /san⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /san⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /san⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /san⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ʂã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ʂaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ʂæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /sæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /sɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /sæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /se⁵³/
    Suzhou /se̞⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /sa³³/
    Hui Shexian /sɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /san³³/
    Xiangtan /san³³/
    Gan Nanchang /san⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /san⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑm²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /san⁵³/
    Nanning /san⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /san⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /san⁵⁵/
    /suã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /suã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /saŋ²³/
    /tua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (73)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠɛn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚæn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂəɨn/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃæn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂăn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ srɛn ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-ŋrar/
    English mountain, hill

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11052
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. mountain; hill (Classifier: m c;  mn)
        ―  dēngshān  ―  to climb a mountain
    2. hill-shaped object
        ―  bīngshān  ―  iceberg
    3. bundled straw in which silkworms spin cocoons
    4. gable
    5. A surname​. Shan

    See alsoEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    やま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana やま, katakana ヤマ, rōmaji yama)

    1. a mountain (large mass of earth and rock) or (large) hill
    2. a mine (excavation usually consisting of small tunnels)
      Synonym: 鉱山 (kōzan)
    3. a heap, pile
    4. the top or high part of an object
      ねじ (nejiyama, thread of a screw)
      帽子 (bōshi no yama, crown of a hat)
    5. a climax, peak
      Synonyms: クライマックス (kuraimakkusu), 絶頂 (zetchō)
    6. a chance, gamble
    7. a guess, speculation
    8. a crime, criminal case
      Synonym: 犯罪事件 (hanzai jiken)
    9. mountain climbing, mountaineering
      Synonym: 山登り (yamanobori)
    10. Short for 山鉾 (yamaboko): a festival float usually decorated with a (hoko)
    11. (colloquial) Mount Hiei and/or Enryaku-ji
      Antonym: (tera)
    12. (mahjong) a wall, wall tile
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji yama-)

    1. prefix for species that are wild or residing in mountains
    Derived termsEdit

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji -yama)

    1. counter for number of stock rise and fall like a mountain (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    2. counter for number of mountains, forests and/or mines
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana やま, rōmaji Yama)

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さん
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠɛn).

    Sometimes spelled with rendaku (連濁), as -zan.

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana さん, rōmaji -san)

    1. Mount, Mt.
      1. suffix for names of mountains
      2. suffix for a temple's honorific mountain name
        Synonym: 山号 (sangō)
    Derived termsEdit

    AffixEdit

    1. mountain
    2. mine
    3. temple, temple ground
    4. Short for 比叡山 (Hieizan): Mount Hiei

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むれ
    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    Phonetic spelling first attested in the Edo period.

    From Old Japanese, itself a borrowing from Old Korean 牟禮 (morye), [1][3] compare Middle Korean (mwoy).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana むれ, rōmaji mure)

    1. (rare, obsolete) a hill or mountain

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (me san))

    1. mountain

    CompoundsEdit


    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *yama.

    NounEdit

    (yama) (kana やま)

    1. a mountain
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 31)
        伊能知能麻多祁牟比登波多多美許母弊具理能夜麻能久麻加志賀波袁宇受爾佐勢曾能古
        ino2ti no2 matake1mu pi1to2 pa tatami1ko2mo2 Pe1guri-no2-yama no2 kumakasi no2 pa wo uzu ni sase so2no2 ko1
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. a forested area of a mountain for harvesting, hunting, etc.
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 779)
        板盖之黑木乃屋根者近之明日取而持將參來
        itapuki1 no2 kuro1ki2 no2 yane pa yama tikasi asu no2 pi1 to2rite motimawiriko2mu
        Since the mountains are close by, tomorrow I will cut down and bring you rough logs for your wooden roof.[1]
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (yama)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Borrowed from Old Korean 牟禮 (morye).[2][3]

    Compare Middle Korean (mwoy).

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (mure) (kana むれ)

    1. a hill or mountain
      • 720, Nihon Shoki (Empress Jingū, entry 19: 49th year of the second month, spring)
        唯千熊長彥與百濟王、至于百濟國、登辟支盟之、復登古沙、共居磐石上。
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    Usage notesEdit

    No known Early Middle Japanese dictionaries attest the mure spelling phonetically, the earliest being found in the Mito-bon Hei Nihongi Shiki (1678).

    DescendantsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of Ōtomo Yakamochi (718-785) (1982) (Please provide the title of the work), illustrated edition, University of California Press, →ISBN, page 106
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    VietnameseEdit