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U+56B4, 嚴
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-56B4

[U+56B3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+56B5]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +17, 20 strokes, cangjie input 口口一一大 (RRMMK), four-corner 66248, composition𠪚)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 214, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4589
  • Dae Jaweon: page 436, character 33
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 702, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+56B4

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
 
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Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰɯːm, *kʰreːmʔ, *ɡraːmʔ
*l̥ʰaːms, *klaːmʔ
*l'aːmʔ
*klaːmʔ
*klaːmʔ
*kʰlaːms
*kʰlaːms, *qʰreːmʔ, *hŋraːms
*qʰaːm, *qʰlaːms
*qʰlaːms, *qʰraːms, *qʰraːb
*ŋraːm
*ŋraːm, *ŋamʔ
*qʰraːmʔ
*kjam
*hŋramʔ
*ŋam
*ŋamʔ
*ŋamʔ
*ŋams

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋam): semantic  (talkative) + phonetic  (OC *klaːmʔ) – the original script of (OC *qʰlaːms, *qʰraːms, *qʰraːb, “exaggerated and absurd words”).

The meanings of "solemn" and "stern" may be a result of phonetic borrowing.

EtymologyEdit

(Schuessler, 2007) considers it to be cognate with the following:

  • (OC *ŋraːm, “(of mountains) high; lofty”)
  • (OC *ŋamʔ, “dignified; majestic”)
  • (OC *qʰramʔ, “precipitous; dangerous”)
  • (OC *ŋab, “lofty; large”) (an allofam with a stop final).

They are all Sino-Tibetan in origin. Cognates in Tibetan include Tibetan རྔམ་པ་ (rngam pa, splendor; majesty) and Tibetan རྔམས (rngams, height; splendor). Burmese ငြမ်း (ngram:, scaffold) may also be a cognate.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nyian2 - literary;
  • ngan2 - vernacular.
  • Cantonese
  • Min Bei
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gân - vernacular;
    • giâm - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
    Harbin /ian²⁴/
    Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /iã⁴²/
    Qingdao /iã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
    Xi'an /iã²⁴/
    Xining /iã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵian³¹/
    Guiyang /nian²¹/
    /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ien²⁴/
    Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
    Suzhou /ȵiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ne⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵiẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵiẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɛn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋiɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
    Nanning /jim²¹/
    Hong Kong /jim²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /giam³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋiŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋiam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋiam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (145)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie 𩏩
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨɐm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɐm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɐm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨam/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɐm/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭɐm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯ɐm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjæm ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ(r)am/
    English stern, majestic

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3692
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋam/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. strict, rigorous, rigid
      /   ―  yán  ―  strict; stringent
      /   ―  yánjǐn  ―  rigorous; strict
    2. stern
      /   ―  yán  ―  stern
    3. solemn; majestic; stately
      /   ―  zhuāngyán  ―  solemn
      /   ―  zūnyán  ―  dignity
    4. urgent; pressing
    5. severe
      /   ―  yánzhòng  ―  severe; critical
    6. (of defense) tight
      /   ―  yán  ―  tight; difficult to penetrate
    7. (of weather) freezing cold
      /   ―  yándōng  ―  severe winter; harsh winter
      /   ―  yánhán  ―  freezing cold; bitterly cold
    8. to respect
    9. to fear
    10. A surname​.
      /   ―  Yán  ―  Yan Fu (scholar and translator)

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of (strictness, severity, rigidity)

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eom) (hangeul , revised eom, McCune–Reischauer ŏm)

    1. strict, rigorous, rigid
    2. stern

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nghiêm, ngàm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.