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See also:
U+600E, 怎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-600E

[U+600D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+600F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 61, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 竹尸心 (HSP), four-corner 80331, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 379, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10431
  • Dae Jaweon: page 708, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2280, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+600E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  (OC *zraːɡs) + semantic  (heart).

EtymologyEdit

First attested in the word 怎生 [10th c.] (Yuan et al., 1996).

Contraction of (MC t͡sɑk̚) + some variant of (MC mɨut̚, “thing; what”), literally “to do what” (Norman, 1988). This is evidenced in forms found in the Tang and Song dynasties (Yuan et al., 1996): 作勿生 (MC t͡sɑk̚ mɨut̚ ʃˠæŋ) [8th c.], 作沒生 (MC t͡sɑk̚ muət̚ ʃˠæŋ) [8th c.], 作摩 (MC t͡sɑk̚ muɑ) [10th c.], 作麼 (MC t͡sɑk̚ muɑX) [10th c.].

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • zam2 - literary;
  • zaam2 - literary (rare);
  • dim2 - vernacular (most likely unrelated), more commonly written as .
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ciōng - vernacular (also written as );
    • cīng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chóaⁿ/chài/cháiⁿ/chá/chóa/chái - vernacular;
    • chím/chérm - literary.
  • Wu
  • DefinitionsEdit

    1. how; why
    2. what

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 怎麼 (“how”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 如何
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 怎麼
    Mandarin Beijing 怎麼
    Jinan 怎麼
    Xi'an , 咋樣兒
    Wuhan , 麼樣, 哪樣
    Chengdu , 咋個, 啷個
    Yangzhou 井幹
    Hefei 怎樣,
    Cantonese Guangzhou , 點樣
    Hong Kong , 點樣
    Taishan 幾何
    Gan Nanchang , 啷樣
    Hakka Meixian 仰般
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 仰般, 仰仔
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 仰仔
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 仰般
    Dongshi (Dabu) 仰脣,
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 仰般, 仰般形
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 仰子
    Jin Taiyuan , 咋底
    Min Dong Fuzhou 怎怎, , 怎其
    Min Nan Xiamen 按怎, 怎影
    Taipei 按怎
    Penang 按怎
    Philippines (Manila) 障仔, 按怎,
    Chaozhou 在生, 乜生, 做呢
    Wu Shanghai 哪能
    Suzhou 捺亨
    Wenzhou 訾那, 訾那能
    Xiang Changsha 何什
    Shuangfeng 麼家

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    • On (unclassified): しん (shin); (so); そう ()
    • Kun: いかで (ikade)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (chẩm, chẩn, tẩn, trẫm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit