Japanese edit

Etymology 1 edit

Alternative spelling
然う (rare)


Adverb edit

そう (さう (sau)?

  1. so, like that, in such a way, such
    Sore wa . / Sorya daro.
    Well, of course.
See also edit

Interjection edit

そう (さう (sau)?

  1. yes, yeah; it's like that; that's how it is; I see. (interjection to show that the speaker is paying attention)
Synonyms edit

Etymology 2 edit


Probably either a shift from (sama), or directly from (). Appears from the Muromachi period.[1][2]

Possibly influenced by, or developed by analogy to, the adverbial and interjectional (然う).

Pronunciation edit

  • In Tokyo accent, the accent of the verb construction depends on the suffixed verb:[3]
Suffixed verb is accented Suffixed verb is non-accented
Continuative stem + そう () (evidential) Result has the accent on the (so) mora
Example: くりそーだ [tsùkúrísóꜜòdà]
Result is non-accented
Example: そびそーだ [àsóbísóódá]
Finite form + そう () (hearsay) Result keeps the original accent
Example: るそーだ [tsùkúꜜrùsòòdà]
Result is accented on the (so) mora
Example: そぶそーだ [àsóbúsóꜜòdà]

Suffix edit

そう (-sō-na (adnominal そう (-sō na na), adverbial そう (-sō ni ni))

  1. seem, seem like, appear
  2. (after the plain form of a verb or adjective) apparently, heard that (relating something heard from someone or somewhere else)
Usage notes edit

This productive suffix meaning “seeming like” can come after a full phrase in plain form, or after a verb or adjective stem, thereby forming a -na adjective.

  • After a full phrase in plain form, the resulting phrase implies reported speech, something heard from someone else. For example, the verb 降る (furu, to fall from the sky) plus this suffix forms 降るそう (furu , I've heard that it will rain” or “someone told me that it will rain). The adjective 美味しい (oishii, delicious) plus this suffix forms 美味しいそう (oishii , I've heard that it's delicious).
  • After a verb or adjective stem, the resulting word means “it looks like X”. For example, the stem 降り (furi-) of the verb 降る (furu, to fall from the sky) plus this suffix forms 降りそう (furi, it looks like it will rain). The stem 美味し (oishi-) of the adjective 美味しい (oishii, delicious) plus this suffix forms 美味しそう (oishi, looks delicious). However, いい (ii) + そう becomes よさそう (yosasō) and ない (nai) + そう becomes なさそう (nasasō).

The suffix should not be used after stem forms describing visually obvious physical traits like color. Although 赤いそう (akai , I've heard that it's red) would be valid, *赤そう (aka, it seems red) would not. Another example of this is that 可愛い (kawaii) means someone looks cute so it does not need another そう. (かわいそう (kawaisō) does exist, but means “pitiful” or “poor”.) The suffix should, however, be used when describing another person's mood or mental state. For example, if another person looks glad, one says 嬉しそう (ureshi, you seem glad), which is more natural and polite than saying 嬉しい (ureshii, you are glad).

This word is morphologically a clitic after a phrase in plain form, and an inflectional suffix after a verb or adjective stem. It is classified as a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) in traditional Japanese grammar.

Inflection edit

Etymology 3 edit


Adjective edit

そう (-na (adnominal そう (sō na na), adverbial そう (sō ni ni))

  1. : vibrant, manly, brave

Counter edit

そう (-sō

  1. : pairs
  2. :
  3. : floors in a building
  4. : small boats

Noun edit

そう (

For pronunciation and definitions of そう – see the following entries.
[adjective] pair; double
[proper noun] a male given name
[noun] appearance, how something looks
[noun] an aspect of something
[noun] (grammar) grammatical aspect
[noun] (physics) a phase, as of matter
[noun] (ikebana) the central supporting branch of an ikebana arrangement
[noun] grass
[noun] a draft, a rough copy
[noun] cursive, calligraphy in a running hand
[noun] something unofficial, an informal abbreviation or knock-off
[noun] mourning
[noun] burial
[noun] a (Buddhist) priest, bonze
[noun] a guzheng, zheng (Chinese zither)
[proper noun] a surname
[noun] (obsolete) left and right
[noun] letter; tidings
(This term, そう, is the hiragana spelling of the above terms.)
For a list of all kanji read as そう, see Category:Japanese kanji read as そう.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , , , , , , , , , , , , 疎雨, 疏雨.)

Prefix edit

そう (sō-

  1. : gross, general

Proper noun edit

そう (

  1. : a male given name
  2. : a surname
  3. : Song

Suffix edit

そう (-sō

  1. : race, run

Verb edit

そう (

  1. 添う, 副う: to accompany; to comply with
  2. 沿う: to follow; to run along
  3. : (auxiliary) be, do

References edit

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Online Japanese Accent Dictionary (OJAD)