See also:
U+5FC3, 心
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FC3

[U+5FC2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FC4]
U+2F3C, ⼼
KANGXI RADICAL HEART

[U+2F3B]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F3D]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms edit

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)
  • (sometimes found as a bottom Chinese radical in characters such as )

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 61, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input (P), four-corner 33000, composition 丿 or 丿)

  1. Kangxi radical #61, .

Usage notes edit

When written as a bottom radical, is similar to (fire radical) but is distinguished by the second stroke from the left being longer, passing under the third stroke.

Derived characters edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 375, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10295
  • Dae Jaweon: page 700, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2267, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5FC3

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) – a heart, now highly stylized.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s(j)am-s.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • sim1 - Chaozhou, Shantou, Jieyang, Pontianak;
  • sing1 - Chenghai.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕin⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕin²¹/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹³/
Qingdao /siə̃²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sin²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ²¹/
Xining /ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕin⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sin³¹/
Hefei /ɕin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕin³³/
Wenzhou /saŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /sin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sin³³/
Xiangtan /sin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sim⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sim²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐm⁵³/
Nanning /ɬɐm⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐm⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sim⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /siŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /seiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /sim³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /tim²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (139)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sim
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪm/
Pan
Wuyun
/sim/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjem/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sim/
Li
Rong
/siəm/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯əm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xīn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sam1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xīn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sim ›
Old
Chinese
/*səm/
English heart

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13801
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slɯm/

Definitions edit

  1. heart (Classifier: m;  c;  mn)
  2. mind
  3. thought; idea
  4. intention
  5. center; core
  6. (~宿) (Chinese astronomy) Heart (one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions)
    Synonyms: (shāng), (chén)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しん) (shin)
  • Korean: 심(心) (sim)
  • Vietnamese: tâm ()

Others:

  • Vietnamese: tim (heart)
  • Zhuang: sim

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. heart
  2. mind
  3. core

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
こころ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
(rare)
(rare)

⟨ko2ko2ro2 → */kəkərə//kokoro/

From Old Japanese (ko2ko2ro2), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *kəkərə. First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[1]

Compare Okinawan (kukuru).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(こころ) (kokoro

  1. mind, heart, spirit, soul; thoughts, ideas
    (こころ)(そこ)からkokoro no soko karafrom the bottom of one's heart
    (ひと)(こころ)(うば)hito no kokoro o ubauto steal someone's heart → to captivate someone
  2. attention, mind, interest
    (こころ)ここにあらずkokoro koko ni arazuabsent minded
  3. heart, feelings, emotion, emotional state
    (こころ)(あたた)まる(ふう)(けい)kokoro atatamaru fūkeia heart warming situation
  4. wholeheartedness, sincerity, true heart
    (こころ)のこもっていないkokoro no komotteinainot sincere
    (こころ)のこもったkokoro no komottasincere
    (こころ)なき()(わざ)kokoro naki shiwazacruel deed
  5. sympathy, heart, consideration, generous disposition
    (こころ)がないkokoro ga nailacking sympathy and consideration
  6. a meaning, essence
    その(こころ)()かっていないsono kokoro ga wakatteinainot understanding what it really means
  7. an answer (to a riddle, etc.)
    その(こころ)sono kokoro wathe answer is
  8. the heart as an organ in the body
    Synonym: 心臓 (shinzō)
  9. the chest
    Synonym: (mune)
  10. the title of a book
    Synonym: 書名 (shomei)
Derived terms edit
Idioms edit

Proper noun edit

(こころ) or (こゝろ) (Kokoro

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
うら
Grade: 2
irregular

From Old Japanese.

Cognate with (ura, inside) and (ura, inlet).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(うら) (ura

  1. a heart, inner feelings
Derived terms edit

Prefix edit

(うら) (ura-

  1. expresses heartfelt feeling
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 2
on’yomi
Alternative spelling
(center)

/simʉ/ → */ɕimʉ//ɕiɴ/

From Middle Chinese (MC sim).

The Buddhist sense is a translation of Pali and Sanskrit चित्त (citta).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(しん) (shin

  1. a heart, mind, core
  2. a spirit, vitality
  3. inner strength, marrow
  4. the center of something:
    1. , : the core (for example, of a fruit)
    2. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  5. , : a wick
  6. (Buddhism) citta: the ego or spirit
    Synonyms: 主観 (shukan), 精神 (seishin)
    Antonym: (shiki)
  7. (Buddhism) Short for 心王 (shinnō): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  8. the heart as an organ in the body
  9. lead (as of a pencil)
  10. padding
  11. a companion, fellow
    Synonyms: 友達 (tomodachi), 仲間 (nakama)
  12. the center of focus:
    1. the important part
      Synonym: 主脳 (shunō)
    2. (theater) Alternative spelling of (shin): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  13. a basis, foundation
    Synonyms: 基礎 (kiso), 根拠 (konkyo)

Affix edit

(しん) (shin

  1. Short for 心臓 (shinzō): heart as an organ in the body
  2. Short for 心頭 (shintō): heart, mind, spirit
  3. Short for 中心 (chūshin): center, middle

Proper noun edit

(しん) (Shin

  1. (Chinese astronomy) the Heart constellation, one of the Twenty-Eight Mansions
    Synonyms: 商星 (Shōsei), 心宿 (Shinshuku), 中子星 (Nakagoboshi)
    Hypernyms: 青竜, 二十八宿
  2. a male or female given name
  3. a surname

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC sim).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: sìm)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] ᄆᆞᅀᆞᆷ (Yale: mòzòm) (Yale: sìm)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 마음 (ma'eum sim))

  1. Hanja form? of (heart; feeling; emotion).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
くくる
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Proto-Ryukyuan *kokoro.

Cognate with mainland Japanese (こころ) (kokoro).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(くくる) (kukuru

  1. a heart, mind, spirit
    Synonym: (chimu)
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
ふくまーみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From (fuku, lung) +‎ (māmi, bean).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ふくまーみ) (fukumāmi

  1. (anatomy) a heart

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
しん
Grade: 2
on’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Middle Chinese (MC sim).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(しん) (shin

  1. the center
  2. , : the core
  3. : a wick
  4. a heart, mind, spirit
Derived terms edit

Old Japanese edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Japonic *kəkərə.

Noun edit

(ko2ko2ro2) (kana こころ)

  1. a heart, mind, spirit
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 14, poem 3466 [1]:
      麻可奈思美奴禮婆許登爾豆佐禰奈敝波己許呂乃緖呂爾能里弖可奈思母
      ma-kanasimi1 nureba ko2to2 ni ’du sanenape1ba ko2ko2ro2 no2 woro2 ni no2rite kanasi mo
      Sleeping with beautiful her, rumours spread; not sleeping [with her, my] heart-strings plucked in mine own sadness.
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 20, poem 4390:
      牟浪他麻乃久留爾久枳作之加多米等之以母加去去里波阿用久奈米加母
      muratama no2 kuru ni kugi1 sasi katame2to2si imo ka ko2ko2ro2 pa ayo1ku name2 ka mo
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      [Note: early scholars had interpreted the man’yōgana as the intended ⟨ri⟩ rather than ⟨ro2, before Eastern Old Japanese vowel variations were discovered.][2][3]
  2. an emotion, feeling
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 2, poem 144:
      磐代野中爾立有結松毛不解所念
      Ipasiro2-no2-no1naka ni tateru musubi1matu ko2ko2ro2 mo to2ke2zu inisipe1 omopoyu
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  3. sympathy
  4. treachery
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (kokoro)

Etymology 2 edit

Cognate with (ura, inside) and (ura, inlet).

Noun edit

(ura) (kana うら)

  1. one’s heart, inner feelings
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (ura)

Prefix edit

(ura-) (kana うら)

  1. expresses heartfelt feeling
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Satake, Akihiro with Hideo Yamada, Rikio Kudō, Masao Ōtani, and Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 3: Man’yōshū 3 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 2002, →ISBN.
  2. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 [Digital Daijisen]‎[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: tâm (()(lâm)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: tâm[1][2][4][6], tấm[3][7][4][6], tim[1][3], tăm[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of tâm (heart; feeling).

Compounds edit

References edit

Zhuang edit

Noun edit

  1. Sawndip form of sim (heart)