ChineseEdit

as (if); such as what
simp. and trad.
(如何)
anagram 何如
Literally: “like what?”.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/2
Initial () (38) (38) (33)
Final () (22) (22) (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III III I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨʌ/ /ȵɨʌH/ /ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɔ/ /ȵiɔH/ /ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiɔ/ /ȵʑiɔH/ /ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵɨə̆/ /ȵɨə̆H/ /ɦa/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɔ/ /ȵiɔH/ /ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭo/ /ȵʑĭoH/ /ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯wo/ /ȵʑi̯woH/ /ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu4 jyu6 ho4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyo › ‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*na/ /*[ɡ]ˁaj/
English as, like, if what

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/2
No. 9623 9631 7458
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nja/ /*njas/ /*ɡaːl/

AdverbEdit

如何 (formal)

  1. how; what; in what way
    如何拍攝液體流動照片 [MSC, trad.]
    如何拍摄液体流动照片 [MSC, simp.]
    rúhé pāishè yètǐ liúdòng zhàopiàn [Pinyin]
    how to take pictures of flowing liquids
    如何游泳  ―  Tā jiāo wǒ rúhé yóuyǒng.  ―  She taught me how to swim.
    現在感覺如何 / 现在感觉如何  ―  Nǐ xiànzài gǎnjué rúhé?  ―  How do you feel now?
    覺得計劃如何 [MSC, trad.]
    觉得计划如何 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ juéde zhè ge jìhuà rúhé? [Pinyin]
    What do you think of this plan?
    如何一個男生覺得特別 [MSC, trad.]
    如何一个男生觉得特别 [MSC, simp.]
    Rúhé ràng yīge nánshēng juéde nǐ hěn tèbié? [Pinyin]
    How can you make a boy think you're special?
  2. how about; what about
    週六如何 / 周六如何  ―  Xià zhōuliù rúhé?  ―  How about next Saturday?

SynonymsEdit

  • (how):

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
いか
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū completed in 759 C.E..

A surface analysis suggests a compound of (i, uncertain element, likely the same (i) prefix found in Old Japanese as an interrogative in いずれ (izure, which), いつ (itsu, when), etc.) +‎ (ka, the question marker particle).

The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun (熟字訓), using the corresponding Chinese term 如何 (literally like what) for the spelling and the underlying Japanese root word for the reading.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

如何(いか) (ika-na (adnominal 如何(いか) (ika na), adverbial 如何(いか) (ika ni))

  1. what kind of
Usage notesEdit

Some dictionaries[2] class this as a bound morpheme. In practice, it generally conjugates and behaves as a regular -na adjective. In formal writing, this is more commonly encountered using the classical attributive form 如何なる (ika naru).

InflectionEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
いかが
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun

/ika ni ka/ → */ikanka//ikanɡa//ikaɡa/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 (ika, what kind) +‎ (ni, adverbial particle) +‎ (ka, question marker particle).[2][1]

The uncontracted form ika ni ka appears in the Man'yōshū completed in 759 C.E.. The fully contracted form ikaga is first cited to the Kokin Wakashū of roughly 905 C.E., with evidence of a partially contracted form ikanga in The Tale of the Heike of roughly 1330.[2]

PronunciationEdit

AdverbEdit

如何(いかが) (ikaga (formal, polite)

  1. in what manner, how
  2. what about... (used to make a suggestion)
    (ちゃ)いかがでしょうか。
    Ocha wa ikaga deshō ka.
    How about some tea?
Usage notesEdit

The term ikaga is generally considered more formal and polite than the synonym どう ().

More commonly spelled in hiragana as いかが. The kanji spelling is rare.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
いかん
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun
Alternative spelling
奈何

/ika ni//ikan/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 (ika, what kind) +‎ (ni, adverbial particle),[2][1] the normal adverbial form of adjective ika above.

The uncontracted form ika ni appears as an adverb in the Man'yōshū completed in 759 C.E.. The contracted form ikan is first cited to the early 1100s.[2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

如何(いかん) (ikan

  1. the whatevers, the whys and wherefores; however [it may be]
    ()(ゆう)如何(いかん)()わず
    riyū no ikan o towazu
    without getting into the whys and wherefores of the reasons

AdverbEdit

如何(いかん) (ikan

  1. howsoever, however [it may be]
Usage notesEdit

Generally used at the end of a sentence to express doubt.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
どう
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun
For pronunciation and definitions of 如何 – see the following entry.
どう
[adverb] in what manner, how
[adverb] what about... (used to make a suggestion)
[interjection] Casual greeting: Howdy? What's new? What's up?
[interjection] Casual question: It works? Is it OK?
[interjection] Call out to horses or cows to control/stop them: Ho! Hoy! Whoa!
Alternative spellings
如何,
(This term, 如何, is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan