Chinese

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as (if); such as what
trad. (如何)
simp. #(如何)
anagram 何如
Literally: “like what?”.

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/2
Initial () (38) (38) (33)
Final () (22) (22) (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III III I
Fanqie
Baxter nyo nyoH ha
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨʌ/ /ȵɨʌH/ /ɦɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɔ/ /ȵiɔH/ /ɦɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiɔ/ /ȵʑiɔH/ /ɣɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵɨə̆/ /ȵɨə̆H/ /ɦa/
Li
Rong
/ȵiɔ/ /ȵiɔH/ /ɣɑ/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭo/ /ȵʑĭoH/ /ɣɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯wo/ /ȵʑi̯woH/ /ɣɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu4 jyu6 ho4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyo › ‹ ha ›
Old
Chinese
/*na/ /*[ɡ]ˁaj/
English as, like, if what

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2 1/2
No. 9623 9631 7458
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nja/ /*njas/ /*ɡaːl/

Adverb

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如何 (formal)

  1. how; what; in what way
    如何拍攝液體流動照片 [MSC, trad.]
    如何拍摄液体流动照片 [MSC, simp.]
    rúhé pāishè yètǐ liúdòng zhàopiàn [Pinyin]
    how to take pictures of flowing liquids
    如何游泳 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Tā jiāo wǒ rúhé yóuyǒng. [Pinyin]
    She taught me how to swim.
    現在感覺如何 [MSC, trad.]
    现在感觉如何 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ xiànzài gǎnjué rúhé? [Pinyin]
    How do you feel now?
    覺得計劃如何 [MSC, trad.]
    觉得计划如何 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ juéde zhè ge jìhuà rúhé? [Pinyin]
    What do you think of this plan?
    如何一個男生覺得特別 [MSC, trad.]
    如何一个男生觉得特别 [MSC, simp.]
    Rúhé ràng yīge nánshēng juéde nǐ hěn tèbié? [Pinyin]
    How can you make a boy think you're special?
    老師春風化雨學會如何待人接物 [MSC, trad.]
    老师春风化雨学会如何待人接物 [MSC, simp.]
    Zài Chén lǎoshī de chūnfēnghuàyǔ xià, wǒ xuéhuì le rúhé dàirénjiēwù. [Pinyin]
    Under the positive influence of Teacher Chen, I've learnt to how to get along with others.
  2. how about; what about
    週六如何周六如何  ―  Xià zhōuliù rúhé?  ―  How about next Saturday?

Synonyms

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  • (how):

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Japanese

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
いか
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun

From Old Japanese, in turn from Proto-Japonic *e-ka. Appears in the Man'yōshū completed in 759 CE.

A surface analysis suggests a compound of (i, uncertain element, likely the same (i) prefix found in Old Japanese as an interrogative in いずれ (izure, which), いつ (itsu, when), etc.) +‎ (ka, the question marker particle).

The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun (熟字訓), using the corresponding Chinese term 如何 (rúhé, literally like what) for the spelling and the underlying Japanese root word for the reading.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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如何(いか) (ika-na (adnominal 如何(いか) (ika na), adverbial 如何(いか) (ika ni))

  1. what kind of
Usage notes
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Some dictionaries[2] class this as a bound morpheme. In practice, it generally conjugates and behaves as a regular -na adjective. In formal writing, this is more commonly encountered using the classical attributive form 如何なる (ika naru).

Inflection
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
いかが
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun

/ika ni ka/ → */ikanka//ikanɡa//ikaɡa/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 (ika, what kind) +‎ (ni, adverbial particle) +‎ (ka, question marker particle).[2][1]

The uncontracted form ika ni ka appears in the Man'yōshū completed in 759 CE. The fully contracted form ikaga is first cited to the Kokin Wakashū of roughly 905 CE, with evidence of a partially contracted form ikanga in The Tale of the Heike of roughly 1330.[2]

Pronunciation

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Adverb

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如何(いかが) (ikaga (formal, polite)

  1. in what manner, how
  2. what about... (used to make a suggestion)
    (ちゃ)いかがでしょうか
    Ocha wa ikaga deshō ka.
    How about some tea?
Usage notes
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The term ikaga is generally considered more formal and polite than the synonym どう ().

More commonly spelled in hiragana as いかが. The kanji spelling is rare.

Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
いかん
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun
Alternative spellings
奈何

/ika ni//ikan/

Originally a phrase consisting of 如何 (ika, what kind) +‎ (ni, adverbial particle),[2][1] the normal adverbial form of adjective ika above.

The uncontracted form ika ni appears as an adverb in the Man'yōshū completed in 759 CE. The contracted form ikan is first cited to the early 1100s.[2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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如何(いかん) (ikan

  1. the whatevers, the whys and wherefores; however [it may be]
    ()(ゆう)如何(いかん)()わず
    riyū no ikan o towazu
    without getting into the whys and wherefores of the reasons

Adverb

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如何(いかん) (ikan

  1. howsoever, however [it may be]
Usage notes
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Generally used at the end of a sentence to express doubt.

Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
どう
Grade: S Grade: 2
jukujikun
For pronunciation and definitions of 如何 – see the following entry.
どう
[adverb] in what manner, how
[adverb] what about... (used to make a suggestion)
[interjection] Casual greeting: Howdy? What's new? What's up?
[interjection] Casual question: It works? Is it OK?
[interjection] Call out to horses or cows to control/stop them: Ho! Hoy! Whoa!
Alternative spellings
, 怎う
(This term, 如何, is an alternative spelling (uncommon) of the above term.)

See also

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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN