See also:
U+4F5C, 作
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F5C

[U+4F5B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5D]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹尸 (OHS) or 人人尸 (OOS), four-corner 28211, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 99, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 210, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 134, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4F5C

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠆯

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡ): semantic (man) + phonetic (OC *zraːɡs).

Etymology edit

Derivative: (“to do”) (the departing-tone variant).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note: zuó - variant pronunciation in 作料.
Note: dok1 - used in 做作 (“conduct”).
Note:
  • chok - literary;
  • choh - vernacular;
  • chòe/chò - substitute for (zuò).
Note:
  • zoh4 - vernacular;
  • zag4 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡suo⁵¹/
    /t͡suo⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
    /t͡suo²⁴/ ~料
    Tianjin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
    /t͡suo²¹/ ~坊
    Jinan /t͡suə²¹³/
    /t͡suə²¹/
    Qingdao /t͡suə⁴²/ ~息
    /t͡suə⁵⁵/ 工~
    Zhengzhou /t͡suo²⁴/ 工~
    /t͡suo⁴²/ ~料
    Xi'an /t͡suo²¹/
    Xining /t͡su⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡suə¹³/
    Lanzhou /t͡suə¹³/
    Ürümqi /t͡suɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡suo²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡so³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡so²¹/
    Kunming /t͡so³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡soʔ⁵/
    Hefei /t͡suɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡suaʔ²/
    Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡suaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡soʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡so²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sɔʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /t͡so⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡so²⁴/
    Xiangtan /t͡so²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sok̚¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sok̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔk̚³/
    Nanning /t͡sɔk̚³³/
    Hong Kong /t͡sɔk̚³/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /t͡sɔk̚³²/
    /t͡soʔ³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɔuʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sak̚²/
    /t͡soʔ²/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /to⁵⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Initial () (13) (13) (13)
    Final () (23) (94) (103)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open Open
    Division () I I I
    Fanqie
    Baxter tsuH tsaH tsak
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡soH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sɔH/ /t͡saH/ /t͡sak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡soH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡suH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zuò zuo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zou3 zo3 zok3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zuò zuò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsak › ‹ tsuH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ts]ˁak/ /*[ts]ˁak-s/
    English do, work do, work

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    No. 16641 16653 16661
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔsaːɡs/ /*ʔsaːɡs/ /*ʔsaːɡ/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. to get up (from a place)
    2. to get up (in the morning) and go to work
    3. to begin to grow; to come into being
    4. to arise; to come about; to happen; to occur; to break out
    5. to do; to perform; to carry out
      什麼什么  ―  Nǐ zài zuò shénme?  ―  What are you doing?
    6. to work; to exert oneself
    7. to make; to manufacture
    8. to compose; to write
        ―  zuòzhě  ―  author
      乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
      乜嘢 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 zok3 gan2 mat1 je5 aa3? [Jyutping]
      What are you writing?
    9. to brace oneself; to boost
    10. to feign; to pretend
    11. to work as; to serve as
    12. to build; to construct
    13. to play; to perform
    14. to emit; to give out
    15. to start; to launch
    16. to be like; similar
    17. Alternative form of (, to curse; to damn)
    18. work; composition; article
    19. affair; matter
    20. measure; action
    21. (Hokkien) to farm; to plow; to till
    Synonyms edit
    • (to do):
    • (to farm):

    Compounds edit

    Pronunciation 2 edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Initial () (13)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter tsak
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zuo
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zok3

    Definitions edit

    1. workshop; studio; workroom
    2. (neologism, originally dialectal) contrived; artificial; affected; pretentious; dramatic; high-maintenance

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Related terms edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    さく
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tsak, to do, to work). Compare Cantonese (zok3), Wu (4tsoq).

    Pronunciation 1 edit

    Noun edit

    (さく) (saku

    1. a work, a production (particularly a cultural work, such as a work of art, of literature, or of theatre)

    Pronunciation 2 edit

    Noun edit

    (さく) (saku

    1. a crop, a harvest

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    つく(り)
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 作る (tsukuru, to make; to build; to work the land, to grow something), itself from Old Japanese.[2]

    Pronunciation 1 edit

    Noun edit

    (つくり) (tsukuri

    1. the workmanship or make of something, how something is made
      (つく)のいい家具(かぐ)
      tsukuri no ii kagu
      furniture of good make or workmanship, well-made furniture
    2. make-up, dress, comportment: how one dresses and comports oneself
      派手(はで)(つく)(きら)いだ。
      Hade na tsukuri wa kirai da.
      I dislike colorful / flashy dress.
    3. a helping or serving of fresh sashimi, usually several slices
      (しゃけ)(つく)(たの)しみにしている。
      Shake no tsukuri o tanoshimi ni shite iru.
      I'm looking forward to a helping of salmon sashimi.
    Usage notes edit

    More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

    Pronunciation 2 edit

    • IPA(key): [d͡zɨᵝkɯ̟ᵝɾʲi]
    • The -tsukuri changes to -zukuri as an instance of rendaku (連濁).
    Suffix edit

    (づくり) (-zukuri

    1. the making of something, particularly as in cultivation
      (にわ)(づく)、バラ(づく)
      niwazukuri, barazukuri
      gardening / garden cultivation, rose cultivation / growing roses
    Usage notes edit

    More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC tsak). Recorded as Middle Korean (cak) (Yale: cak) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 지을 (jieul jak))

    1. Hanja form? of (composition).

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Related to Middle Chinese (MC tsaH).

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 만들 (mandeul ju))
    (eumhun 만들 (mandeul ja))

    1. (literary Chinese) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of / (to make).)

    Etymology 3 edit

    Related to Middle Chinese (MC tsrjoH).

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 저주할 (jeojuhal jeo))

    1. (literary Chinese) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (to curse).)

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Kunigami edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Miyako edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: tác ((tức)(các)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], tố[3]
    : Nôm readings: tác[1][2][3][4][6], [1]

    1. chữ Hán form of tác (to do; to perform; to carry out).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Yaeyama edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit