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See also:
U+4F5C, 作
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F5C

[U+4F5B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5D]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 9 +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人竹尸 (OHS), four-corner 28211, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 99, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 518
  • Dae Jaweon: page 210, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 134, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4F5C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡ
*ʔsraːʔ
*ʔsraːʔ
*ʔsraːʔ, *zraːʔ
*ʔsraːɡs
*ʔsraːɡs, *zraːɡ, *ʔsreːɡ
*ʔsraːɡs, *zaːɡ, *ʔsraːɡ
*ʔsraːɡs
*ʔr'aːɡs, *zreːb
*zraːɡs
*ʔsraːnʔ
*sʰaːɡs, *zaːɡ
*zaːɡs
*zaːɡs
*zaːɡs
*zaːɡs, *zaːɡ
*zaːɡs, *zaːɡ
*ʔsaːɡ, *ʔsraːɡ
*ʔsaːɡ, *zaːɡ
*zaːɡ
*zaːɡ
*zaːɡ
*zaːɡ
*zaːɡ, *zraːɡ
*zaːɡ
*zaːɡ
*zaːɡ, *zreːɡ, *zaɡ
*ʔr'aːɡ, *ʔsraːɡ
*ʔsraːɡ
*ʔsraːɡ
*zraːɡ
*zraːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡs, *ʔsaːɡ): semantic  (man) + phonetic  (OC *zraːɡs).

EtymologyEdit

Derivative: (“to do”) (the departing-tone variant).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • chok - literary;
  • choh - vernacular;
  • chòe/chò - substitute for .

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡suo⁵¹/
/t͡suo⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
/t͡suo²⁴/ ~料
Tianjin /t͡suo⁵³/ 工~
/t͡suo²¹/ ~坊
Jinan /t͡suə²¹³/
/t͡suə²¹/
Qingdao /t͡suə⁴²/ ~息
/t͡suə⁵⁵/ 工~
Zhengzhou /t͡suo²⁴/ 工~
/t͡suo⁴²/ ~料
Xi'an /t͡suo²¹/
Xining /t͡su⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡suə¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡suə¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡suɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡suo²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡so³¹/
Guiyang /t͡so²¹/
Kunming /t͡so³¹/
Nanjing /t͡soʔ⁵/
Hefei /t͡suɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡suaʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡sʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡suaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡soʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡soʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡so²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡sɔʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡so⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡so²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡so²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sok̚¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sok̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sɔk̚³/
Nanning /t͡sɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /t͡sɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sɔk̚³²/
/t͡soʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sɔuʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sak̚²/
/t͡soʔ²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /to⁵⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Initial () (13) (13) (13)
Final () (23) (94) (103)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () I I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡soH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɔH/ /t͡saH/ /t͡sak̚/
Li
Rong
/t͡soH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/t͡suH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡suoH/ /t͡sɑH/ /t͡sɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zuò zuo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zuò zuò
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsak › ‹ tsuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]ˤak/ /*[ts]ˤak-s/
English do, work do, work

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 16641 16653 16661
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsaːɡs/ /*ʔsaːɡs/ /*ʔsaːɡ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to get up (from a place)
  2. to get up (in the morning) and go to work
  3. to begin to grow; to come into being
  4. to arise; to come about; to happen; to occur; to break out
  5. to do; to perform; to carry out
    什麼 / 什么  ―  Nǐ zài zuò shénme?  ―  What are you doing?
  6. to work; to exert oneself
  7. to make; to manufacture
  8. to compose; to write
      ―  zuòzhě  ―  author
  9. to brace oneself; to boost
  10. to feign; to pretend
  11. to work as; to serve as
  12. to build; to construct
  13. to play; to perform
  14. to emit; to give out
  15. to start; to launch
  16. to be like; similar
  17. Alternative form of (, “to curse; to damn”).
  18. work; composition; article
  19. affair; matter
  20. measure; action
SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. workshop; studio; workroom
  2. (neologism, originally dialectal) contrived; artificial; affected; pretentious; dramatic; high-maintenance

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Related termsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
さく
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (tsak, to do, to work). Compare modern Cantonese reading zok3, Wu tsoq (T4).

Pronunciation 1Edit

NounEdit

(hiragana さく, rōmaji saku)

  1. a work, a production (particularly a cultural work, such as a work of art, of literature, or of theatre)

Pronunciation 2Edit

NounEdit

(hiragana さく, rōmaji saku)

  1. a crop, a harvest

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
つく(り)
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 作る (tsukuru, to make; to build; to work the land, to grow something), itself from Old Japanese.[2]

Pronunciation 1Edit

NounEdit

(hiragana つくり, rōmaji tsukuri)

  1. the workmanship or make of something, how something is made
     (つく)のいい () ()
    tsukuri no ii kagu
    furniture of good make or workmanship, well-made furniture
  2. make-up, dress, comportment: how one dresses and comports oneself
     () () (つく) (きら)いだ。
    Hade na tsukuri wa kirai da.
    I dislike colorful / flashy dress.
  3. a helping or serving of fresh sashimi, usually several slices
     (しゃけ) (つく) (たの)しみにしている。
    Shake no tsukuri o tanoshimi ni shite iru.
    I'm looking forward to a helping of salmon sashimi.
Usage notesEdit

More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

Pronunciation 2Edit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana づくり, rōmaji -zukuri)

  1. the making of something, particularly as in cultivation
     (にわ) (づく)、バラ (づく)
    niwazukuri, barazukuri
    gardening / garden cultivation, rose cultivation / growing roses
Usage notesEdit

More often spelled with the okurigana, as 作り.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(jak, ju) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer chak, chu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tác, tố)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit