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U+4F55, 何
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F55

[U+4F54]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F56]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人一弓口 (OMNR), four-corner 21220, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 98, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 511
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 130, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4F55

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ⿰彳可

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形): a man carrying something – original form of (OC *ɡaːlʔ, “to carry”).

EtymologyEdit

Cognate with the following interrogative pronouns:

  • (OC *ɡaː, “what; why”)
  • (OC *ɡeː, “what; why; where”)
  • (OC *ɡaːd, “why”)
  • (OC *ɡaːb, “why not”): from the fusion of 何不 (OC *ɡaːl pɯ, “why not”)

In Sino-Tibetan, cognate with Tibetan ག་ན (ga na, where; how), Tibetan ག་རུ (ga ru, to where) (Schuessler, 2007).

STEDT, on the other hand, compares (OC *ɡaːlʔ) to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ka (which; like; diectic; interrogative), to which (OC *kɯlʔ, “how many”) and (OC *ŋ̊ʰɯlʔ, “how”) are also compared.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hô/hô͘ - literary (incl. surname);
  • ôa - vernacular.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ha ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˁaj/
    English what

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 7458
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (interrogative pronoun asking for the specification of an identity, quantity, quality, etc. of something) what; which
      /   ―  chù  ―  where [lit. what place]
        ―    ―  what day; when
    2. where; what place
    3. (interrogative pronoun asking for reason, manner, etc. of an action) why; how
        ―    ―  why must you
        ―    ―  why not
    4. (forming emphatic sentences) so; such; what; how
    5. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Tagalog: Ho (Hokkien dialect)

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɑX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦɑX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣɑX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɑX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣɑX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣɑX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 7466
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaːlʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (“to carry”).

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (“to scold; to criticise; to denounce”).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. what

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    InterjectionEdit

    Kanji in this term
    なに
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    (なに) (nani

    1. What?, Huh?


    PronounEdit

    Kanji in this term
    なに
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    (なに) (nani (alternative reading hiragana なん, rōmaji nan)

    1. what
    2. that thing (used in place of words you can't remember at the moment.)

    Usage notesEdit

    • is usually read as なに, but before , , , it is read as なん. When followed by , both readings are possible, albeit with different meanings.

    Derived termsEdit

    Related termsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    PrefixEdit

    Kanji in this term
    なん
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    (なん) (nan-

    1. what number, how many (used with a counter)
    2. (used with も) many (used with a counter)
      この(こう)(こく)(なん)(かい)()
      kono kōkoku o nankai mo mita
      I've seen this ad many times

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɑ).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 어찌 (eojji ha))

    1. Hanja form? of (how; what).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana ぬー, rōmaji )

    1. what

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana のー, rōmaji )

    1. what

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana ぬー, rōmaji )

    1. what

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (, )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana のー, rōmaji )

    1. what

    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana ぬー, rōmaji )

    1. what