Latin edit

Etymology edit

Often taken to be a denominative verb 'to make bright, enlighten' to Proto-Italic *argu- (bright), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂érǵus (white), from *h₂erǵ-. Thus cognate with Ancient Greek ἄργυρος (árguros) and Hittite 𒄯𒆠𒅖 (ḫarkiš, bright, white). If so, compare English declare (literally to make clear) for the sense development.

Duchesne-Guillemin, Laroche and Melchert reject the above etymology and instead compare arguo with the semantically better-fitting Hittite [script needed] (arkuwā(i)-, state one's case, make a plea).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

arguō (present infinitive arguere, perfect active arguī, supine argūtum); third conjugation

  1. (to make clear to the mind): to clarify, to make plain; to assert, declare, prove, show
    Synonyms: affirmō, firmō, contendō, aiō, fīgō
  2. to reprove, accuse, charge with
    Synonyms: accūsō, condemnō, crīminor, compellō, obloquor, obiectō, corripiō, arripiō, pulsō, incūsō, arcessō
    • Vulgate; Prōverbia, 9:8
      Nōlī arguere dērīsōrem nē ōderit tē argue sapientem et dīliget tē.
      Translation from American Standard Version:
      Reprove not a scoffer, lest he hate thee: Reprove a wise man, and he will love thee.
  3. to blame, censure
    Synonyms: obiūrgō, castīgō, perstringō, īnsector, corripiō, exprobrō, accūsō, incūsō, damnō, obloquor, acclāmō, inclāmō, increpō, animadvertō, reprehendō, compellō
  4. to denounce as false

Conjugation edit

   Conjugation of arguō (third conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present arguō arguis arguit arguimus arguitis arguunt
imperfect arguēbam arguēbās arguēbat arguēbāmus arguēbātis arguēbant
future arguam arguēs arguet arguēmus arguētis arguent
perfect arguī arguistī arguit arguimus arguistis arguērunt,
pluperfect argueram arguerās arguerat arguerāmus arguerātis arguerant
future perfect arguerō argueris arguerit arguerimus argueritis arguerint
passive present arguor argueris,
arguitur arguimur arguiminī arguuntur
imperfect arguēbar arguēbāris,
arguēbātur arguēbāmur arguēbāminī arguēbantur
future arguar arguēris,
arguētur arguēmur arguēminī arguentur
perfect argūtus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect argūtus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect argūtus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present arguam arguās arguat arguāmus arguātis arguant
imperfect arguerem arguerēs argueret arguerēmus arguerētis arguerent
perfect arguerim arguerīs arguerit arguerīmus arguerītis arguerint
pluperfect arguissem arguissēs arguisset arguissēmus arguissētis arguissent
passive present arguar arguāris,
arguātur arguāmur arguāminī arguantur
imperfect arguerer arguerēris,
arguerētur arguerēmur arguerēminī arguerentur
perfect argūtus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect argūtus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present argue arguite
future arguitō arguitō arguitōte arguuntō
passive present arguere arguiminī
future arguitor arguitor arguuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives arguere arguisse argūtūrum esse arguī argūtum esse argūtum īrī
participles arguēns argūtūrus argūtus arguendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
arguendī arguendō arguendum arguendō argūtum argūtū

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Catalan: argüir
  • English: argue
  • French: arguer
  • Galician: argüír
  • Italian: arguire
  • Portuguese: arguir
  • Spanish: argüir

References edit

  • arguo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • arguo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • arguo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7)‎[1], Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN

Portuguese edit

Verb edit


  1. first-person singular present indicative of arguir