English edit

Etymology edit

From Middle English contenden, borrowed from Old French contendre, from Latin contendere (to stretch out, extend, strive after, contend), from com- (together) + tendere (to stretch); see tend, and compare attend, extend, intend, subtend.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /kənˈtɛnd/
  • Rhymes: -ɛnd
  • (file)

Verb edit

contend (third-person singular simple present contends, present participle contending, simple past and past participle contended)

  1. (intransitive) To be in opposition; to contest; to dispute; to vie; to quarrel; to fight.
  2. (intransitive) To struggle or exert oneself to obtain or retain possession of, or to defend.
    • 17th century, John Dryden, Epistle III to the Lady Castlemain
      You sit above, and see vain men below / Contend for what you only can bestow.
    • 2020, C. Matthew McMahon, Therese B. McMahon, 5 Marks of Christian Resolve:
      God has entrusted something to the church, and it is the church's job to contend for it, even unto death
  3. (intransitive) To be in debate; to engage in discussion; to dispute; to argue.
    • 1689 (indicated as 1690), [John Locke], chapter 2, in An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. [], London: [] Eliz[abeth] Holt, for Thomas Basset, [], →OCLC, book I, page 9:
      these simple ideas are far from those innate principles which some contend for
    • 1667, attributed to Richard Allestree, The Causes of the Decay of Christian Piety. [], London: [] R. Norton for T. Garthwait, [], →OCLC:
      many of those things he so fiercely contended about , were either falle or trivial
  4. (intransitive) To believe (something is reasonable) and argue (for it); to advocate.
    In this paper the author contends that no useful results can be obtained if this method is used.
    • 1996, Michael Adler, Erio Ziglio, Gazing Into the Oracle [] :
      Some panellists contended that the costs of research and care justified the establishment of a permanent national commission
    • 2022 August 24, Tassanee Vejpongsa, Grant Peck, “Thai court suspends PM Prayuth pending ruling on term limit”, in The Washington Post[1], retrieved 2022-08-24:
      His critics contend the eight years [term limit] expired Tuesday, the day before the anniversary of Prayuth officially becoming prime minister in the military government installed after the coup.
    • Supreme Court of the United States (2024) Trump v. Andersons:Trump v. Anderson, page 1:
      A group of Colorado voters contends that Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution prohibits former President Donald J. Trump, who seeks the Presidential nomination of the Republican Party in this year’s election, from becoming President again.
  5. contend with: To try to cope with a difficulty or problem.
    • 2021 December 29, Dominique Louis, “Causal analysis: crashworthiness at Sandilands”, in RAIL, number 947, page 32:
      However, the challenges for the railway world are much greater than for automotive as we generally have more occupants, higher speeds, greater masses, higher energies, and an absence of seatbelts or airbags to contend with.

Synonyms edit

Related terms edit

Translations edit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Further reading edit