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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

Probably the iterative form of an (unattested) verb *sargt or *sergt, from the same stem as sargs (protector): Proto-Baltic *serg-, *sarg-, from Proto-Indo-European *ser- (to watch over, to protect, to preserve) with an extra -g. The present tense forms sargu and sargāju alternate in various dialects; the shorter form is older, the longer more recent. Cognates include Lithuanian sérgėti, sergė́ti (to protect, to supervise, to watch over), archaic sergti; Old Prussian absergīsnan (defense [acc.]); from the same root *ser-, also Latin servāre (to protect, to watch, to keep, to preserve, to save, to store) and perhaps Ancient Greek goddess Ἥρα (Hḗra). From a possibly related stem *sterg-, also Proto-Slavic *stergti (to protect, to watch over), *storžь (protector, guard) (Old Church Slavonic стрѣшти (strěšti), стражь (stražь), Russian стеречь (steréč’), сторож (stórož)).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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VerbEdit

sargāt

  1. 2nd person plural present indicative form of sargāt

sargāt tr., 2nd/3rd conj., pres. sargāju, sargā, sargā / sargu, sargi, sarga, past sargāju

  1. to protect, to guard (to act in such a way that something, some place, etc. becomes unavailable, inaccessible to undesirable or unauthorized people)
    sargāt rūpnīcuto protect the factory
    sargāt teritorijuto protect the territory
    sargāt munīcijas noliktavuto guard the ammunition depo
    sargāt nometni, cietumuto guard the camp, the prison
    sarga veikalu kāds večukssome old man guards the store
  2. to protect (to prevent something unwanted, undesirable from happening to someone, usually an important person)
    sargāt valsts vadītājusto protect the heads of state
    sargāt sūtnito protect the messenger
    sargāt parlamentārusto protect the members of parliament
  3. (usually of military forces) to protect, to defend (to prevent the enemy from attacking, spying, etc.)
    sargāt robežuto protect, to defend the border
    dzimteni 'sargājot / asinis liet / dzīvību atdot / es arī varuprotecting (my) fatherland / shed blood / give (my) life / I also can
    es, māsiņa, tālu eju sargāt savu tēvu zemiI, sister, am going far (away) to protect my fatherland
  4. to protect, to guard (to prevent something or someone from being stolen, destroyed, attacked, etc.; also of animals)
    cilvēks sarga savu mantu no laupītājiema person protects his property from thieves
    tās ir plūmes; man viņas jāsargā, lai citi berni nenošķinthese are plums; I must protect, guard them, so that other children won't pluck them off
    Oskars iegādājies suni, lai sargā mājuOskars purchased a dog to protect (his) house
    stirna savus mazuļus ļoti sargā, aizdzenot ienaidniekus ar stipro priekškāju sitieniemthe doe protects her babies, driving the enemies away with strong blows of (her) front legs
  5. to guard, to watch over (to limit the freedom of action of someone, usually a prisoner)
    sargāt cietumniekusto guard the prisoners
  6. to protect, to shelter (to use something carefully, to prevent bad external influences on something)
    sargāt jauno uzvalkuto protect the new suit
    sargāt mašīnu no bojājumiemto protect the car from damage
    sargāt mežu no ugunsto protect the forest from fire(s)
    sargāt veselībuto protect one's health
    sargāt acisto protect one's eyes (e.g., from excessive sunlight)
    mitrums ļoti nelabvēlīgi ietekmē koka ķīļu izturīgumu, tāpēc tie darbā jāsargā no samirkšanashumidity has a very detrimental effect on the resistance of wooden wedges; because of this, (one) must protect them from getting wet in (= during) work
    līgava attin vaļā lakatu, kas to sargājis no dubļiem un ceļa grantsthe bride removes the scarf, so as to protect it from dirt and road gravel
  7. to protect, to keep, to guard (to make something, e.g., honor, tradition, relationships, be preserved)
    es vēl nezināju, ka draudzība ir ļoti, ļoti jāsargāI still didn't know that friendship must really, really be protected
    vainaga gods meitai jāsarga, kamēr tā ir meitas kārta un nes vainagu— the girl must keep, preserve the crown's honor, as long as it is the girl's time and she wears the crown
    vēstures un kultūras pieminekļus sargā likumsthe law protects historical and cultural monuments
    pilsoņu dzīvokļu neaizskaramību sargā likumsthe law protects the inviolability of citizen's homes

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:
  • other derived terms:

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “sargāt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7