Last modified on 18 September 2014, at 05:47
See also: , , and

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Original form of () ("to present rice as a gift"), which is from the same source as ("to endow; to make endow, to beg"). Current meaning came from phonetic loan.

Schwartz see it as an Ideogrammic compound (會意) : Steam rising from a bowl of rice . Schwartz link the rice component to the concept of Qi. The nourishing vapors of boiling rice represent the Qi, the "vital energy" which make life possible.

But this theory is incompatible with the original meaning of the character. So the rice vapor should be seen as the etymology of () but not as the etymology of 气(氣).

ReferencesEdit

  • 1985, Benjamin Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, ISBN 9780674043312:

Han characterEdit

(radical 84 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917, composition)

  1. air, gas, steam, vapor
  2. breath, spirit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 599, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17059
  • Dae Jaweon: page 990, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2011, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+6C23

CantoneseEdit

HanziEdit

(simplified , Jyutping hei3, Yale hei3)

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JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Spirit, mind, mood, atmosphere
  2. Air, gas

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gi) (hangeul , revised gi, McCune-Reischauer ki, Yale ki)

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CompoundsEdit


MandarinEdit

HanziEdit

(simplified , Pinyin (qi4), Wade-Giles ch'i4)

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

(traditional, Pinyin , simplified )

  1. (Intermediate Mandarin) air; gas
    • 出去 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]
      Chūqù tòu tòu qì! [Pinyin]
      Go out to breath fresh air!
    • 輪胎 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]
      Lúntāi lòu qì le. [Pinyin]
      The tire leaks air.
  2. (Intermediate Mandarin) breath
  3. smell; odour
    • 把廚炊的煙火從衣服上去掉是很難的。 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]
      Bǎ chú chuī de yānhuǒ cóng yīfú shàngqù diào shì hěn nán de. [Pinyin]
      It is difficult to remove the smell of cooking from clothes.
    • 氣味 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]qìwèi [Pinyin] — smell
  4. weather
    • 天氣 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]tiānqì [Pinyin] — weather
  5. (Chinese philosophy) Qi; vital energy; life force

VerbEdit

(traditional, Pinyin , simplified )

  1. (Elementary Mandarin) to get angry
    • 生氣 [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]shēngqì [Pinyin] — to get angry
  2. to make angry, to annoy
    • 我! [Beijing Mandarin, MSC, trad.]bié wǒ! [Pinyin] — Don't annoy me!
  3. to breath

ReferencesEdit

  • "" (in Mandarin/English), MDBG English to Chinese dictionary ( Based on CC-CEDICT ). URL accessed on 2014-02-17.
  • "Jukuu" (in Mandarin/English), Jukuu.

Min NanEdit

HanziEdit

(POJ khì, khùi)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(khí)

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