Last modified on 14 April 2015, at 20:22

See also: , , and

TranslingualEdit

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic  (rice) - to give rice as a gift. Later borrowed meanings of "air, flow" from . The derivative refers to the original word.

Han characterEdit

(radical 84 +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 人弓火木 (ONFD), four-corner 80917, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 599, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17059
  • Dae Jaweon: page 990, character 26
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2011, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+6C23

ChineseEdit

-
trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (氣), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 溪 (29)
Final: 微
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 去旣切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰɨiH/ /kʰe̯iH/ /kʰiəiH/ /kʰɨiH/ /kʰɨjH/ /kʰĭəiH/ /kʰiəiH/
Character (氣), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 曉 (32)
Final: 微
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 許旣切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/hɨiH/ /xe̯iH/ /xiəiH/ /hɨiH/ /hɨjH/ /xĭəiH/ /xiəiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ khjɨjH › /*C.qʰəp-s/ cloudy vapors
‹ xjɨjH › /*qʰət-s/ to present food

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10140 1 /*kʰɯds/
10143 1 /*qʰɯds/ 後作餼

DefinitionsEdit

  1. air; gas
    天然氣天然气 (“natural gas”)
    出去 [MSC, trad.]
    出去 [MSC, simp.]
    Chūqù tòu tòu ! [Pinyin]
    Go out to breathe fresh air!
    輪胎 [MSC, trad.]
    轮胎 [MSC, simp.]
    Lúntāi lòu le. [Pinyin]
    The tire leaks air.
  2. breath
    喘不過 / 喘不过  ―  chuǎnbùguò lái  ―  to be out of breath
    戰鬥最后 [MSC, trad.]
    战斗最后 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ huì zhàndòu dào zuìhòu yī kǒu . [Pinyin]
    I will fight to my last breath.
  3. (Chinese philosophy) Qi; vital energy; life force
  4. smell; odour
    氣味气味 (“smell”)
    廚炊煙火衣服去掉 [MSC, trad.]
    厨炊烟火衣服去掉 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǎ chúchuī de yānhuǒ cóng yīfú shàng qùdiào shì hěn nán de. [Pinyin]
    It is difficult to remove the smell of cooking from clothes.
  5. weather
    天氣天气 (“weather”)
  6. to get angry
    生氣生气 (“to get angry”)
  7. to make angry, to annoy
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Bié wǒ! [Pinyin]
    Don't annoy me!
  8. to breathe

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (氣):


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

ReadingsEdit

Usage notesEdit

Not used in modern Japanese. Replaced by the shinjitai form .


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gi) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer ki, Yale ki)

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CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(khí)

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