Last modified on 12 December 2014, at 07:12

生活

ChineseEdit

 
to be born; to give birth; life; to grow
 
to live; alive; living; work; workmanship
simp. and trad.
(生活)

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (生活, reconstructed)
Character (生), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 生 (21)
Final: 庚
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 所庚切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃɣæŋ/ /ʂɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɯaŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃaŋ/
Character (生), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 生 (21)
Final: 庚
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 所敬切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃɣæŋH/ /ʂɐŋH/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ʃɯaŋH/ /ʂaɨjŋH/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ʃaŋH/
Character (活), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 見 (28)
Final: 末
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 古活切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kʷɑt̚/ /kwat̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/
Character (活), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 末
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 戸括切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɦʷɑt̚/ /ɦwat̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (生活, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shēng ‹ sraeng › /*sreŋ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?)/ bear, be born; live
shēng ‹ sraeng › /*sreŋ/ fresh, raw
shēng ‹ srjaeng › /*sreŋ (or *s.reŋ ?)/ bear, be born; live
huó ‹ hwat › /*[g]ʷˤat/ to live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11312 0 /*sʰleːŋ/
11322 0 /*sreŋs/
7568 3 /*koːd/
7585 3 /*ɡoːd/

NounEdit

生活

  1. life; existence; livelihood; lifestyle

VerbEdit

生活

  1. to live; to exist

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (生活):


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
かつ
Grade: 2
on'yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

生活 (hiragana せいかつ, romaji seikatsu)

  1. life; livelihood; daily living.

Usage notesEdit

生活 is distinct from (いのち, inochi, life), because it refers to daily life and livelihood as it is experienced, whereas 命 refers to life as a whole (from birth to death), or as an abstract concept. Both are generally translated as life, however, as this distinction is not normally made in English.

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

VerbEdit

生活 + する (hiragana せいかつする, romaji seikatsu suru)

  1. live a life

ConjugationEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this word

NounEdit

生活 (saenghwal) (hangeul 생활)

  1. Hanja form? of 생활, “lifestyle, way of life, daily living”.

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

生活

  1. Hán tự form of sinh hoạt, "life"