Chechen

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Nakh *so.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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со (so)

  1. I

Declension

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 Chechen personal pronouns
Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Nominative со (so) хьо (ḥʳo) иза (iza)
Genitive сан (san) хьан (ḥʳan) цуьнан (cünan)
Dative сӯна (suuna) хьӯна (ḥʳuuna) цунна (cunna)
Ergative ас (as) ахь (aḥʳ) цо̄ (coo)
Allative со̄ьга (sööga) хьо̄ьга (ḥʳööga) цуьнга (cünga)
Ablative со̄ьгара (söögara) хьо̄ьгара (ḥʳöögara) цуьнгара (cüngara)
Instrumental со̄ьца (sööca) хьо̄ьца (ḥʳööca) цуьнца (cünca)
Lative сох (sox) хьох (ḥʳox) цунах (cunax)
Comparative сол (sol) хьол (ḥʳol) цул (cul)
Plural 1st person (excl) 2nd person 3rd person
Nominative тхо (txo) шу (šu) уьш (üš)
Genitive тхан (txan) шун (šun) це̄ран (ceeran)
Dative тхӯна (txuuna) шуна (šuna) ца̄рна (caarna)
Ergative о̄ха (ooxa) аш () ца̄ра (caara)
Allative тхо̄ьга (txööga) шуьга (šüga) цаьрга (cärga)
Ablative тхо̄ьгара (txöögara) шуьгара (šügara) цаьргара (cärgara)
Instrumental тхо̄ьца (txööca) шуьца (šüca) ца̄рца (caarca)
Lative тхох (txox) шух (šux) ца̄рах (caarax)
Comparative тхол (txol) шул (šul) ца̄рал (caaral)
Plural 1st person (incl)
Nominative вай (vaj)
Genitive вайн (vajn)
Dative вайна (vajna)
Ergative вай (vaj)
Allative вайга (vajga)
Ablative вайгара (vajgara)
Instrumental вайца (vajca)
Lative вайх (vajx)
Comparative вайл (vajl)
An exclusive form is a form that excludes the person being addressed.
An inclusive form is a form that includes the person being addressed.

References

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Ingush

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Nakh *so.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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со (so)

  1. I

Declension

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 Ingush personal pronouns
Singular 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
Nominative со (so) хьо (ḥʳo) из (iz)
Genitive са (sa) хьа (ḥʳa) цун (cun)
Dative со̄на (soona) хьо̄на (ḥʳoona) цунна (cunna)
Ergative а̄з (aaz) ӏа (ˀa) цо̄ (coo)
Allative со̄га (sooga) хьо̄га (ḥʳooga) цунга (cunga)
Ablative со̄гара (soogara) хьо̄гара (ḥʳoogara) цунгара (cungara)
Instrumental со̄ца (sooca) хьо̄ца (ḥʳooca) цунца (cunca)
Lative сох (sox) хьох (ḥʳox) цунах (cunax)
Comparative сол (sol) хьол (ḥʳol) цул (cul)
Plural 1st person (excl) 2nd person 3rd person
Nominative тхо (txo) шо (šo) уж ()
Genitive тха (txa) шун (šun) ца̄р (caar)
Dative тхо̄на (txoona) шоана (šoana) ца̄рна (caarna)
Ergative оаха (oaxa) оаш (oaš) ца̄ра (caara)
Allative тхо̄га (txooga) шуга (šuga) ца̄рга (caarga)
Ablative тхо̄гара (txoogara) шугара (šugara) ца̄ргара (caargara)
Instrumental тхо̄ца (txooca) шуца (šuca) ца̄рца (caarca)
Lative тхох (txox) шух (šux) ца̄рех (caarex)
Comparative тхол (txol) шул (šul) ца̄рел (caarel)
Plural 1st person (incl)
Nominative вай (vaj)
Genitive вай (vaj)
Dative вайна (vajna)
Ergative вай (vaj)
Allative вайга (vajga)
Ablative вайгара (vajgara)
Instrumental вайца (vajca)
Lative вайх (vajx)
Comparative вайл (vajl)
An exclusive form is a form that excludes the person being addressed.
An inclusive form is a form that includes the person being addressed.

References

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Macedonian

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Pronunciation

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Preposition

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со (so)

  1. with
    Пишувам со молив.
    Pišuvam so moliv.
    I am writing with a pencil.
    Разговарам со пријател.
    Razgovaram so prijatel.
    I am conversing with a friend.

Nivkh

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Noun

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со (so)

  1. Lenited form of чо (ț’o). Occurs after vowels and plosives.
    Ытиксо тух ӿумд.
    Ətikso tux humd.
    The crucian carp lives in a lake.

Russian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [sə]
  • IPA(key): [sɐ] (before a stressed syllable)
  • Audio:(file)
  • IPA(key): [ˈso] (when stressed)
  • Audio:(file)

Preposition

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со (so)

  1. with (+ instrumental case)
  2. off, from (+ genitive case)

Usage notes

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This is a variant of с (s) before words beginning with certain awkward consonant clusters such as мн- (mn-), вс- (vs-), and сн- (sn-).

Antonyms

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See also

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Serbo-Croatian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *solь, from Proto-Indo-European *seh₂ls.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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со̑ f (Latin spelling )

  1. (Bosnia, Serbia) salt

Declension

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Udmurt

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Etymology

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From Proto-Permic *su̇, from Proto-Uralic *sän. Cognates include Erzya сон (son) and Finnish hän.

Permic cognates include Komi-Zyrian сійӧ (sijö) and Komi-Permyak сія (sija).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈso]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Hyphenation: со

Pronoun

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со (so)

  1. (third person singular personal pronoun) he, she, it
    со удмурт кылъя дышетӥсьso udmurt kylja dyšetiśhe is a teacher of the Udmurt language

Derived terms

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References

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  • L. E. Kirillova, L. L. Karpova, editors (2008), “со”, in Удмурт-ӟуч кыллюкам [Udmurt-Russian dictionary], Izhevsk: Удмуртский институт истории, языка и литературы УрО РАН, →ISBN, page 606
  • Yrjö Wichmann, Toivo Emil Uotila (1987) Mikko Korhonen, editor, Wotjakischer Wortschatz [Votyak Vocabulary] (Lexica Societatis Fenno-Ugricae; Volume 21) (overall work in German), Helsinki: Suomalais-ugrilainen Seura, →ISBN, →ISSN, page 260