See also: ع و د

ArabicEdit

 
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Etymology 1Edit

From ع و د(ʿ-w-d) meaning to bend or be flexible, to return, to be supple.[1] See also aloe, lute.

The instrument sense of the word derives as an Arabic version of the Persian بربط(barbat), that featured a smaller more curved neck with greater tension, as well as a larger rounded belly created from steam-bent strips of wood. The Barbat was carved from one solid piece of wood, the larger size of the oud's belly was something not previously possible before the further development of using hot moisture to aid in bending thin strips. This characteristic technique became the traditional source of the instruments name;[2] for more see Oud and Barbat.

However there is a cognate instrument Ugaritic 𐎓𐎄 (ʿd, lute, an instrument) 1000's of years prior to this[3], identified as an early chordophone with connection to the Sumerian 𒄑𒅗𒁲 (gu3.di, instruments in general, a lute, literally wood that has voice)[4][5] This precursor to ouds and guitars was constructed of strings laid on a wood-staff that ran through the whole body of the instrument attached to a simple drum-like resonating body; as strings of lyres and drums were used prior, the distinguishing feature was this wooden rod.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ʕuːd/
  • (file)

NounEdit

عُود (ʿūdm (plural أَعْوَاد(ʾaʿwād) or عِيدَان(ʿīdān))

  1. wood, timber
  2. stick, rod, pole
  3. branch, twig
  4. stem, stalk
  5. cane, reed
  6. aloe, agarwood, any plant with high moisture content
  7. thin strip of wood, veneer
  8. (music) oud, lute
  9. body, build, physique
  10. strength, specifically tensile strength, force, intensity
DeclensionEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Verbal noun of عَادَ(ʿāda, to return), from the root ع و د(ʿ-w-d).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

عَوْد (ʿawdm

  1. verbal noun of عَادَ(ʿāda) (form I)
  2. return
  3. reversion, recurrence
  4. (law) recidivism
  5. repetition, reiteration
  6. camel trained to be ridden
    • وَإِنِّي زَعِيمٌ إِنْ رَجِعْتُ مُمَلَّكٌ / بِسَيْرٍ تَرَى مِنْهُ الفُرَانِقَ أَزْوَرَا
      عَلَى لَاحِبٍ لَا يَهْتَدِي بِمَنَارِهِ / إِذَا سَافَهُ الْعَوْدُ النُّبَاطِيُّ[6] جَرْجَرَا
      عَلَى كُلِّ مَقْصُوصِ الذُنَابَى مُعَاوِدٍ / بَرِيدَ السَرَى بِاللَيْلِ مِن خَيْلِ بَرْبَرَا
      wa-ʾinnī zaʿīmun ʾin rajiʿtu mumallakun / bi-sayrin tarā minhu l-furāniqa ʾazwarā
      ʿalā lāḥibin lā yahtadī bi-manāri-hī / ʾiḏā sāfa-hū l-ʿawdu n-nubāṭiyyu[6] jarjarā
      ʿalā kulli maqṣūṣi ḏ-ḏunābā muʿāwidin / barīda s-sarā bi-l-layli min ḵayli barbarā
      And I am the leader when I am envoyed on a trip from which you see asquint a courier
      on an open road guided by no waymark, when it is smelled by the Nabataean camel dragging forward
      on every clipped bird-tail returning nocturnal journey’s mail by night from a horse that whinnied.
  7. worn road
DeclensionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Lane's Dictionary, pages 2188-2192, specifically bottom middle column of 2190, "عود", root meaning to bend or be flexible, to return, to be supple.
  2. ^ Jean During (1988-12-15): Barbaṭ. In: Encyclopaedia Iranica.
  3. ^ Matahisa Koitabashi: Musical Instruments in the Ugaritic Texts. In: Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan Vol. 39 (1996) No. 2 P 16-32
  4. ^ The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary, ĝešgudi, University of Pennsylvania, 2004; note: the ĝeš prefix is a determinative for wooden objects.
  5. ^ "194a" in Dominique Collon: Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1995 in conjunction with The Trustees of the British Museum, page 225.
  6. ^ Variant: دِيَافِيُّ (diyāfiyyu), another word meaning “Nabataean”.

Gulf ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

عود (ʿōd)

  1. big, large
    Synonym: كْبير(kbīr)

NounEdit

عود (ʿōd)

  1. (Kuwait) (with الـ(il-)) colloquial title of the Emir of Kuwait

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

عود (ʿūd) (plural اَعْواد(aʿwād) or عيدان(ʿīdān))

  1. drinking straw
  2. oud, lute
  3. incense

PronunciationEdit

  • (Kuwait) IPA(key): /ʕəwːəd/

VerbEdit

عَوَّد (ʿawwad) (imperfect يعود(iʿawwid))

  1. to make someone get used to something or someone
    عودنا عليك
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Moroccan ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic عَوْد(ʿawd).

NounEdit

عود (ʕawd)

  1. horse

PersianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic عُود(ʿūd, aromatic wood wood).

NounEdit

عود (ud)

  1. incense

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic عُود(ʿūd, wood; lute).

NounEdit

عود (ud) (plural عودها(ud-hâ))

  1. (music) oud, lute, barbat

SynonymsEdit