See also:ع و دandعوذ

Arabic

 
Arabic Wikipedia has an article on:
عود
Wikipedia ar

Etymology 1

Root
ع و د(ʕ-w-d)

From ⁧عَادَ(ʕāda, to return, to turn back) in the sense of a branch or other slender piece of wood being flexible.

The sense “oud, lute” can be understood as a Middle Persian [script needed] (lwt' /⁠rōd⁠/, string; stringed instrument; barbat) (> Persianرود(rud)), compare like liquid rebracketing in ⁧عَسْكَر(ʕaskar) and ⁧أَنْجَر(ʔanjar).

The instrument sense of the word then stands as an Arabic version of the Persian ⁧بربط(barbat), that featured a smaller more curved neck with greater tension, as well as a larger rounded belly created from steam-bent strips of wood. The Barbat was carved from one solid piece of wood, the larger size of the oud's belly was something not previously possible before the further development of using hot moisture to aid in bending thin strips. This characteristic technique became the traditional source of the instruments name;[1] for more see Oud and Barbat.

However there is a cognate instrument Ugaritic 𐎓𐎄 (ʿd, lute, an instrument) 1000's of years prior to this,[2] identified as an early chordophone with connection to the Sumerian 𒄑𒅗𒌣 (GEŠgu3.de2, instruments in general, a lute, literally wood that has voice)[3][4] This precursor to ouds and guitars was constructed of strings laid on a wood-staff that ran through the whole body of the instrument attached to a simple drum-like resonating body; as strings of lyres and drums were used prior, the distinguishing feature was this wooden rod.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ʕuːd/
  • (file)

Noun

عُود (ʕūdm (pluralأَعْوَاد(ʔaʕwād) orعِيدَان(ʕīdān))

  1. wood, timber
  2. stick, rod, pole
  3. branch, twig
  4. stem, stalk
  5. cane, reed
  6. aloe, agarwood, any plant with high moisture content
    • a. 1283, Abū Yahyā Zakariyāʾ ibn Muhammad al-Qazwīnīy, edited by Ferdinand Wüstenfeld, عجائب المخلوقات وغرائب الموجودات [ʿajāʾib al-maḵlūqāt wa-ḡarāʾib al-mawjūdāt][3], Göttingen: Verlag der Dieterichschen Buchhandlung, published 1849, page 260:
      عود شجرة تنبت في جزائر بحر الهند عروقها تقلع وتدفن في الأرض حتى تتعفن منها الحشية فيبقى العود الخالص قال شيخ الرئيس مضعة يطيب النكهة وينفع الدماغ جدَّا ويقوّي الحواسّ والقلب ويفرحه وتدخينه بالسكر طيب جدَّا والسكر يقوّي رائحته وشراب العود طارد للرياح المؤلمة.
      Agalloch is a tree that grows in islands of the Indian sea and its roots are extracted and buried in the earth until they rot, of it one makes a stuffing and it stays pure, Šayḵ ar-Raʾīs says that a bit of it already is of nice smell and assists the brain in a serious extent and strengthens the senses and the heart and rejoices it and when smoked with sugar it is also very nice, sugar strengthens its smell and the syrup of agalloch expectorates doloriferous winds.[5]
  7. thin strip of wood, veneer
  8. (music) oud, lute
  9. body, build, physique
  10. strength, specifically tensile strength, force, intensity
Declension
Descendants
  • Azerbaijani: ud
  • English: oud
  • Ottoman Turkish: ⁧عود(ʿūd)
    > Turkish: ud, ut (inherited)
  • Persian: ⁧عود('ud)
  • Old Occitan: laüt
  • Portuguese: alaúde
  • Spanish: laúd
  • Swahili: udi
  • Uyghur: ⁧ئۇد(ud)
  • Uzbek: ud

Etymology 2

Verbal noun of ⁧عَادَ(ʕāda, to return), from the root ⁧ع و د(ʕ-w-d).

Pronunciation

Noun

عَوْد (ʕawdm

  1. verbal noun of عَادَ(ʕāda) (form I)
  2. return
  3. reversion, recurrence
  4. (law) recidivism
  5. repetition, reiteration
    • a. 1274, Ibn Malik, Alfiyyah, verses 559–560:
      وَعَوْدُ خَافِضٍ لَدَى عَطْفٍ عَلَى / ضَمِيرِ خَفْضٍ لَازِمًا قَدْ جُعِلَا / وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي لَازِمًا إِذْ قَدْ أَتَى / فِي ٱلنَّظْمِ وَٱلنَّثْرِ الصَّحِيحِ مُثْبَتَا
      waʕawdu ḵāfiḍin ladā ʕaṭfin ʕalā / ḍamīri ḵafḍin lāziman qad juʕilā / walaysa ʕindī lāziman ʔiḏ qad ʔatā / fī n-naẓmi wan-naṯri ṣ-ṣaḥīḥi muṯbatā
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  6. camel trained to be ridden
    • p. 700, a forger of Imruʾ al-Qays, سما لكَ شوقٌ بعدما كان أقصر [4] [5]:
      وَإِنِّي زَعِيمٌ (var. أَذِينٌ) إِنْ رَجِعْتُ مُمَلَّكٌ / بِسَيْرٍ تَرَى مِنْهُ الفُرَانِقَ أَزْوَرَا
      عَلَى لَاحِبٍ لَا يَهْتَدِي بِمَنَارِهِ / إِذَا سَافَهُ الْعَوْدُ النُّبَاطِيُّ (var. دِيَافِيُّ) جَرْجَرَا
      عَلَى كُلِّ مَقْصُوصِ الذُنَابَى مُعَاوِدٍ / بَرِيدَ السَرَى بِاللَيْلِ مِن خَيْلِ بَرْبَرَا
      wa-ʔinnī zaʕīmun (var. ʔaḏīnun) ʔin rajiʕtu mumallakun / bi-sayrin tarā minhu l-furāniqa ʔazwarā
      ʕalā lāḥibin lā yahtadī bi-manāri-hī / ʔiḏā sāfa-hū l-ʕawdu n-nubāṭiyyu (var. diyāfiyyu) jarjarā
      ʕalā kulli maqṣūṣi ḏ-ḏunābā muʕāwidin / barīda s-sarā bi-l-layli min ḵayli barbarā
      And when I am the leader, back in the kingly rights, I trip so fast that you but see asquint the courier
      on an open road guided by no waymark, when it is smelled by the Nabataean camel dragging forward
      on every clipped bird-tail returning nocturnal journey’s mail by night from a horse that whinnied.
  7. worn road
Declension

References

  1. ^ Jean During (1988-12-15), “Barbaṭ”, in Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition[1], New York
  2. ^ Matahisa Koitabashi: Musical Instruments in the Ugaritic Texts. In: Bulletin of the Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan Vol. 39 (1996) No. 2 P 16-32
  3. ^ gude”, in The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary, University of Pennsylvania, 2006; note: the ĝeš prefix is a determinative for wooden objects.
  4. ^ "194a" in Dominique Collon: Ancient Near Eastern Art. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1995 in conjunction with The Trustees of the British Museum, page 225.
  5. ^ Commented by Jacob, Georg (1892) Studien in arabischen Geographen[2] (in German), volume 4, Berlin: Meyer & Müller, pages 159–160, who identifies this use with Aquilaria agallocha.

Gulf Arabic

Etymology 1

Pronunciation

Adjective

عود (ʿōd)

  1. big, large
    Synonym:كبير(kbīr)

Noun

عود (ʿōdm

  1. (Kuwait, colloquial) (with ⁧الـ(il-)) Emir of Kuwait

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Noun

عود (ʿūdm (pluralاَعْواد(aʿwād) orعيدان(ʿīdān))

  1. drinking straw
  2. oud, lute
  3. incense

Etymology 3

Pronunciation

  • (Kuwait) IPA(key): /ʕəwːəd/

Verb

عَوَّد (ʿawwad) (non-pastيعود(iʿawwid))

  1. to make someone get used to something or someone
    عودنا عليك
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Hijazi Arabic

Root
ع و د
1 term
 
عود
 
عود

Etymology

From Arabicعُود(ʕūd).

Pronunciation

Noun

عود (ʕūdm (pluralأعواد(ʔaʕwād) orعيدان(ʕīdān))

  1. stick, rod, pole
  2. branch, twig
  3. stem, stalk
  4. cane, reed
  5. agarwood,aloe, any plant with high moisture content
  6. thin strip of wood, veneer
  7. (music) oud, lute

Moroccan Arabic

Etymology 1

From Arabicعُود(ʕūd).

Pronunciation

Noun

عود (ʕūdm (pluralعواد(ʕwād))

  1. wood, timber
  2. stick
  3. branch, twig
  4. (music) oud, lute

Etymology 2

From Arabicعَوْد(ʕawd, camel trained to be ridden).

Pronunciation

Noun

عود (ʕawdm (pluralعودان(ʕawdān), feminineعودة(ʕawda))

  1. horse
    Synonyms:حصان(ḥiṣān, ḥṣān), ⁧خيل(ḵīl, ḵayl)

Ottoman Turkish

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Arabicعُود(ʕūd).

Noun

عود (ʿūd, öd)

  1. wood, piece of wood or timber; stick, wand, etc.
  2. aloeswood, agarwood, agalloch
  3. oud, lute

Derived terms

Further reading

Persian

Pronunciation

 

Readings
Classical reading? ūḏ
Dari reading? ūd
Iranian reading? ud
Tajik reading? ud

Etymology 1

From Arabicعُود(ʕūd, aromatic wood).

Noun

عود ('ud)

  1. incense
Descendants

Etymology 2

From Arabicعُود(ʕūd, wood; lute).

Noun

عود ('ud) (pluralعودها('ud-hâ))

  1. (music) oud, lute, barbat
    Synonym:بربط(barbat)

South Levantine Arabic

Root
ع و د
7 terms

Etymology 1

From Arabicعَوَّدَ(ʕawwada).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ʕaw.wad/, [ˈʕaw.wad]
  • (file)

Verb

عوّد (ʕawwad) II (presentبعوّد(biʕawwed))

  1. (transitive) to accustom
Conjugation
    Conjugation of ⁧عوّد(ʕawwad)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m عوّدت⁩ (ʕawwadt) عوّدت⁩ (ʕawwadt) عوّد⁩ (ʕawwad) عوّدنا⁩ (ʕawwadna) عوّدتو⁩ (ʕawwadtu) عوّدو⁩ (ʕawwadu)
f عوّدتي⁩ (ʕawwadti) عوّدت⁩ (ʕawwadat)
present m بعوّد⁩ (baʕawwed) بتعوّد⁩ (bitʕawwed) بعوّد⁩ (biʕawwed) منعوّد⁩ (minʕawwed) بتعوّدو⁩ (bitʕawwdu) بعوّدو⁩ (biʕawwdu)
f بتعوّدي⁩ (bitʕawwdi) بتعوّد⁩ (bitʕawwed)
subjunctive m اعوّد⁩ (aʕawwed) تعوّد⁩ (tʕawwed) يعوّد⁩ (yʕawwed) نعوّد⁩ (nʕawwed) تعوّدو⁩ (tʕawwdu) يعوّدو⁩ (yʕawwdu)
f تعوّدي⁩ (tʕawwdi) تعوّد⁩ (tʕawwed)
imperative m عوّد⁩ (ʕawwed) عوّدو⁩ (ʕawwdu)
f عوّدي⁩ (ʕawwdi)

Etymology 2

From Arabicعُود(ʕūd).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /ʕuːd/, [ʕuːd]
  • (file)

Noun

عود (ʕūdm (pluralعيدان(ʕīdān))

  1. branch, piece of wood
See also
  • عودة(ʕūde, stick, twig)

Noun

عود (ʕūdm (pluralأعواد(ʔaʕwād))

  1. oud, lute