しまう

JapaneseEdit

Alternative spellings 終う
了う
仕舞う

EtymologyEdit

From root shim-, cognate with classical verb 締む (shimu, to fasten, tighten) and modern verb 閉まる (shimaru, to be closed) +‎ (fu, auxiliary verb indicating repetition or ongoing action).

PronunciationEdit

  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "しまう"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
しまう まう [shìmáú]
Imperative (命令形) しまえ まえ [shìmáé]
Key constructions
Passive しまわれる まわれる [shìmáwárérú]
Causative しまわせる まわせる [shìmáwásérú]
Potential しまえる まえる [shìmáérú]
Volitional しまおう まお [shìmáóꜜò]
Negative しまわない まわない [shìmáwánáí]
Negative perfective しまわなかった まわなかった [shìmáwánáꜜkàttà]
Formal しまいます まいま [shìmáímáꜜsù]
Perfective しまった まった [shìmáttá]
Conjunctive しまって まって [shìmátté]
Hypothetical conditional しまえば まえ [shìmáéꜜbà]

VerbEdit

しまう (shimaugodan (stem しまい (shimai), past しまった (shimatta), historical kana しまふ)

  1. to close
  2. to finish, do something completely
  3. to put away, to put an end to
  4. (auxiliary) after the conjunctive (-te) form of a verb:
    1. is, or was (with conjugation), done completely
    2. happens, or happened, unexpectedly
      (かの)(じょ)(おお)(さか)()ってしまいましたKanojo wa Ōsaka ni itte shimaimashita.She just (up and went) to Osaka.
    3. is done with difficulty
    4. happens, or is done with regret afterward
      あなたは(わら)われてしまうでしょう。anata wa warawarete shimau deshō.You will be laughed at (and you won't like it).

Usage notesEdit

  • The auxiliary use is always appended to the conjunctive (-te form) of a verb.
  • しまう (-te shimau) and しまう (-de shimau) can be contracted to ちゃう (-chau) and ぢゃう (-jau). These two forms conjugate like godan verbs and are often used in casual speech.
    (わす)ちゃったwasurechatta!I forgot!
  • There are also ちまう (-chimau) and ぢまう (-jimau), which sound old-fashioned.
  • Due to changes in spelling rules during the 20th century, the voiced versions ぢゃう (-jau) and ぢまう (-jimau) may be more commonly encountered as じゃう (-jau) and じまう (-jimau).

ConjugationEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN