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U+4E0A, 上
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0A

[U+4E09]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜一 (YM), four-corner 21100, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𠄞
Min Nan “most”

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
             





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*djaŋʔ, *djaŋs
*djaŋʔ, *djaŋs

Ideogram (指事): a line above another (contrast ) — up.

Etymology 1Edit

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: Xiamen siāng - only used for “most”.
Note:
  • zion7/ziên7 - vernacular (“upper part; up; on; above; in”);
  • siang6 - literary (“superior; most”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋʔ-s/
    English top, above (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11103
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋs/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. upper part; high position; up
      Antonyms: (xià)
    2. emperor
    3. on; above
    4. superior; senior; top
    5. preceding; previous; last; former
      •   ―  shàngnián  ―  last year
      •   ―  shàng  ―  last episode
    6. first of several (usually two or three) partitions
      Antonyms: (zhōng), (xià)
    7. within; in; from the standpoint of; according to
    8. (Min Nan) most; extremely

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • sông / song1 - “to go up; to go; to attend” (major reading);
    • sóng / song3 - “to fit; to install; to apply”.
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siông - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chiông - only in “to pull up”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiūⁿ/chiōⁿ/chiǔⁿ - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chhiūⁿ/chhiōⁿ/chhiǔⁿ - only in “to pull up; to grow; to pile up”.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX › ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/ /*m-daŋʔ/
    English ascend to put up

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to go up; to ascend
    2. to go to; to leave for (a place)
    3. to board; to get on
      • /   ―  Qǐng shàng chē.  ―  Please get into the car.
    4. to attend (class, work)
      •   ―  shàngbān  ―  to go to work
      • 夜校  ―  shàng yèxiào.  ―  She goes to night school.
    5. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage)
    6. to fit; to install; to apply
    7. to screw; to tighten, to twist
    8. (colloquial) Short for 上線 (“to go online”).
    9. to connect to; browse (a website)
      • 谷歌  ―  shàng Gǔgē  ―  to go on Google; to google
    10. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
    11. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
    12. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
    13. (vulgar, of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse with a female
    14. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.
    15. 7th tetragram of the Taixuanjing

    Pronunciation 3Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/
    English ascend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (~聲) (Chinese phonetics) rising tone in Chinese phonetics

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to sole a shoe”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“the piece of leather used for soles on Chinese shoes. a patch”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. above, high, up
    2. earlier
    3. excellent, top
    4. certain time or place in the past
    5. limit
    6. climb, rise
    7. offer
    8. go to the center
    9. raise, bring up
    10. one of the four tones of Middle Chinese
    11. Kōzuke Province

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うえ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨upe1 → */upwe//ufe//uwe//ue/

    From Old Japanese.

    Bound apophonic form of uwa, ancient upa (see below), possibly by fusion with an empathic particle (i).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うえ, rōmaji ue, historical hiragana うへ)

    1. the above
    2. the top (position or direction)
    3. the surface of
    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana うえ, rōmaji -ue)

    1. suffix addressing to a superior
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うわ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /upa//ufa//uwa/

    From Old Japanese. The combining form of ue, ancient upe (see above).[1]

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うわ, rōmaji uwa, historical hiragana うは)

    1. upper, over
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    Irregular

    ⟨upe1 → */ipe/⟨pe1 → */pwe//fe//he/

    Short-form of or shift from ue, ancient upe (see above). Realized as -e in some compounds.

    Usage notesEdit

    The senses are the same with ue.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かみ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kami1 → */kamʲi//kami/

    From Old Japanese.

    Bound apophonic form of ancient kamu (see kan below), possibly by fusion with an empathic particle (i).

    Distinct from (/kami2/kami, Shinto deity).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana かみ, rōmaji kami)

    1. the start
    2. a high place; the top
    3. one with higher rank
    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kamu//kaɴ/

    Shift from Old Japanese combining form kamu.

    Usage notesEdit

    The senses are the same with kami.

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    じょう
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /d͡ʑɨau//zjau//zjɔː//d͡ʑoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡ʑɨɐŋX, d͡ʑɨɐŋH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana じょう, rōmaji , historical hiragana じやう)

    1. the first volume in a two- or three-volume set
      Antonym: (ge)
    Derived termsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana じょう, rōmaji -jō, historical hiragana じやう)

    1. from the standpoint of
       () (ろん) (じょう)はありえないこと
      riron- wa arienai koto
      something that is impossible according to theory
       (ほう) (りつ) (じょう) (そう) (ちょう)
      hōritsu- no sōchō
      legal dispute
    2. aboard (a plane or ship)
    3. above, in, on
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (wit sang))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (thượng)

    1. king, emperor
    2. One who's high - ranked
    3. To go forward, above
    4. To fill with liquid
    5. To sprinkle
    6. To light up