See also:
U+4E0A, 上
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0A

[U+4E09]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0B]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜一 (YM), four-corner 21100, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 76, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13
  • Dae Jaweon: page 145, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 5, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4E0A

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing) Kangxi Dictionary (compiled in Qing)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script Ming typeface
                     





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a line above another (contrast (xià)) — up. Originally written as 𠄞, but changed to this form to prevent confusion with (èr).

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ancient
𠄞
Min Nan “most”

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-tjaŋ (top). Cognate with Tibetan སྟེང (steng), Tibetan ཡང་རྩེ (yang rtse, summit; pinnacle) (Bodman, 1980), Mizo zo (to be high), zah (to respect; to revere) (STEDT).

Shijing rimes indicate occasional level tone for pronunciation 2 (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1 is the exopassive of pronunciation 2 with suffix *-s, literally meaning "what has been raised" (Schuessler, 2007). The rising tone in Middle Chinese words with voiced stop initials regularly evolves into departing tone in Mandarin; pronunciation 3 results from 叶韻叶韵 (xiéyùn), which artificially preserves classical poetry rhyming words' pronunciations.

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note: Xiamen siāng - only used for “most”.
Note:
  • zion7/ziên7 - vernacular (“upper part; up; on; above; in”);
  • siang6 - literary (“superior; most”).
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: shan5 / shan4
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /ʂan²¹/, /ʂan⁴⁵/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /san²¹/, /san⁴⁵/
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter dzyangH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    soeng6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*daŋʔ-s/
    English top, above (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11103
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋs/
    Definitions edit

    1. upper part; high position; up
      Antonym: (xià)
    2. emperor
    3. on; above
        ―  shùshàng  ―  on the tree
        ―  Bǐ zài zhuōshàng.  ―  The pen is on the desk.
    4. superior; senior; top
    5. preceding; previous; last; former
        ―  shàng yī nián  ―  last year
        ―  shàng  ―  last episode
      世紀世纪  ―  shàng shìjì  ―  last century
    6. first of several (usually two or three) partitions
      Antonyms: , (xià)
      西遊記西游记  ―  Xīyóujì shàng  ―  Journey to the West I
      古漢語中古漢語 [MSC, trad.]
      古汉语中古汉语 [MSC, simp.]
      shànggǔ hànyǔ hé zhōnggǔ hànyǔ [Pinyin]
      Old Chinese and Middle Chinese
    7. within; in; from the standpoint of; according to
      理論理论  ―  zài lǐlùn shàng  ―  according to theory
      這個世界这个世界  ―  zài zhège shìjiè shàng  ―  in this world
      英文沒有相似說法 [MSC, trad.]
      英文没有相似说法 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài yīngwén shàng méiyǒu xiàngsì de shuōfǎ. [Pinyin]
      There is no similar way of wording in English.
    8. (Min Nan) most; extremely
    Synonyms edit

    Pronunciation 2 edit


    Note:
    • sông / song1 - “to go up; to go; to attend” (major reading);
    • sóng / song3 - “to fit; to install; to apply”.
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • siông - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chiông - only in “to pull up”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiūⁿ/chiōⁿ/chiǔⁿ - “to go up” (major reading);
    • chhiūⁿ/chhiōⁿ/chhiǔⁿ - only in “to pull up; to grow; to pile up”.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: shan5 / shan4
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /ʂan²¹/, /ʂan⁴⁵/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /san²¹/, /san⁴⁵/
  • Note:
    • shan5 - vernacular;
    • shan4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter dzyangX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    soeng6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX › ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/ /*m-daŋʔ/
    English ascend to put up

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    Definitions edit

    1. to go up; to ascend
    2. to charge; to advance
        ―  Shàng a!  ―  Charge!
    3. to go to; to leave for (a place) (usually to a more developed place)
      省城  ―  shàng xǐngchéng  ―  to go to the province capital
    4. to board; to get on
        ―  Qǐng shàng chē.  ―  Please get into the car.
    5. to serve; to present; to offer
      還有还有  ―  Háiyǒu liǎng ge cài méi shàng.  ―  There're two dishes that haven't been served.
        ―  Shàng bǐ hé zhǐ lái.  ―  Give me the pen and the paper.
    6. to attend (class, work)
        ―  shàngbān  ―  to go to work
      夜校  ―  shàng yèxiào.  ―  She goes to night school.
    7. to enter (a field); to appear (on stage, TV)
    8. to fit; to install; to apply
      油漆  ―  shàng yóuqī  ―  to apply paint
    9. to screw; to tighten, to twist
    10. (colloquial) Short for 上線 (“to go online”).
    11. to connect to; browse (a website)
      谷歌  ―  shàng Gǔgē  ―  to go on Google; to google
    12. (Cantonese) to go north
    13. (Min) to pull upwards or hang with a rope
      [Hokkien]  ―  chhiūⁿ-chúi [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to draw water from a well
    14. (Min Nan) to grow and attach
      青苔 [Hokkien]  ―  chhiūⁿ chheⁿ-thî [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to grow moss
    15. (Xiamen Min Nan) to pile up
      [Hokkien]  ―  chhiūⁿ-hòe [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to pile up goods
    16. (vulgar, usually of a male) to fuck; to have intercourse (usually with a female)
    17. Particle following verbs, indicating direction or achievement.
      安排  ―  Ānpái shàng le.  ―  It has been arranged.
    18. 7th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "ascension" (𝌌)
    19. (mahjong, Cantonese) chow; to call a discarded tile to produce a chow
    Usage notes edit
    • When playing mahjong in Cantonese, a player may say this word as a call when forming a chowing another player's discard
    Synonyms edit

    Pronunciation 3 edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter dzyangX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    soeng6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shàng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzyangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə-daŋʔ/
    English ascend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11102
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*djaŋʔ/
    Definitions edit

    1. (~聲) (Chinese phonetics) rising tone in Chinese phonetics
    See also edit
    The tones (of Chinese) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
    平仄 (píngzè) (píng)
    平聲平声 (píngshēng)
    ()
    仄聲仄声 (zèshēng)
    平上去入 (píngshǎngqùrù)
    四聲四声 (sìshēng)
    (píng)
    平聲平声 (píngshēng)
    (shǎng)
    上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
    ()
    去聲去声 (qùshēng)
    ()
    入聲入声 (rùshēng)
    標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
    標調法标调法
    四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜂◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜆
    [Term?] ◌〪 ◌〫 ◌〬 ◌〭
    傍點傍点 ◌〮 ◌〯
    四聲八調四声八调 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng) 陽平阳平 (yángpíng) 陰上阴上 (yīnshǎng) 陽上阳上 (yángshǎng) 陰去阴去 (yīnqù) 陽去阳去 (yángqù) 陰入阴入 (yīnrù) 陽入阳入 (yángrù)
    (yīn) (yáng)
    標調方法标调方法 (biāodiào fāngfǎ)
    標調法标调法
    四角標調法四角标调法 ꜀◌ ꜁◌ ꜂◌ ꜃◌ ◌꜄ ◌꜅ ◌꜆ ◌꜇
    The tones (of Standard Mandarin) in Mandarin · 聲調声调 (shēngdiào) (layout · text)
    四聲四声 (sìshēng) 陰平阴平 (yīnpíng)
    一聲一声
    陽平阳平 (yángpíng)
    二聲二声 (èrshēng)
    上聲上声 (shǎngshēng)
    三聲三声 (sānshēng)
    去聲去声 (qùshēng)
    四聲四声 (sìshēng)
    輕聲轻声 (qīngshēng)

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (じょう) ()
    • Korean: 상(上) (sang)
    • Vietnamese: thượng (, upper), thướng (, to go up)

    Etymology 2 edit

    simp. and trad.

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. (music) Kunqu gongche notation for the note do (1).
    2. (music) Cantonese opera gongche notation for the note do (1).

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to sole a shoe”).
    (This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    Etymology 4 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    Further reading edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. above, high, up
    2. earlier
    3. excellent, top
    4. certain time or place in the past
    5. limit
    6. climb, rise
    7. offer
    8. go to the center
    9. raise, bring up
    10. one of the four tones of Middle Chinese
    11. short for 上野国 (Kōzuke no kuni): Kōzuke Province

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    うえ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨upe2/*upai̯//upe//ufe//uwe//ue/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *upay.

    Unbound apophonic form of uwa, ancient upa (see below).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (うえ) (ueうへ (ufe)?

    1. the above
      (うえ)()いて(ある)こう
      Ue o Muite Arukō”
      Walk Looking Up
    2. the top (position or direction)
      (はこ)(うえ)
      hako no ue
      top of the box
    3. the surface of
      (みず)(うえ)()かぶ
      mizu no ue ni ukabu
      to float upon the water
    4. superior in skill, age, level, etc.
      (ひと)(うえ)先輩(せんぱい)
      hitotsu ue no senpai
      senior who is one year older
      (ふた)(まわ)(うえ)上司(じょうし)
      futamawari-ue no jōshi
      boss who is twenty-four years older (than someone else)
    Antonyms edit
    Derived terms
    Idioms

    Suffix edit

    (うえ) (-ueうへ (ufe)?

    1. suffix addressing to a superior
    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (うえ) (Ueうへ (ufe)?

    1. a surname

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    うわ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /upa//ufa//uwa/

    From Old Japanese. The combining form of ue, ancient upe (see above).[1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (うわ) (uwaうは (ufa)?

    1. upper, over
    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (うわ) (Uwaうは (ufa)?

    1. a place name

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    irregular

    ⟨upe2⟨pe2 → */pe//fe//he/

    Short-form of or shift from ue, ancient upe (see above). Realized as -e in some compounds.

    Pronunciation edit

    Usage notes edit

    The senses are the same with ue.

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かみ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨kami1 → */kamʲi//kami/

    From Old Japanese. Already apparent in ancient texts such as the Kojiki (c. 712 CE) and the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).[1][4]

    Distinct from (⟨kami2kami, Shinto deity).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かみ) (kami

    1. the start
    2. a high place; the top
    3. one with higher rank
    Antonyms edit
    Derived terms
    Idioms

    Proper noun edit

    (かみ) (Kami

    1. a place name
    2. a surname

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term
    かん
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /kami//kamʉ//kaɴ/

    Contraction of Old Japanese ⟨kami1. Spelled in ancient works as かむ (kamu) prior to the development of the (n) kana.[1][4][5]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (かん) (kan

    1. (obsolete) Same as かみ (kami) above
    Usage notes edit

    Generally only found when followed by the genitive / possessive particles (no) or (tsu).

    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (かん) (Kan

    1. a place name

    Etymology 6 edit

    Kanji in this term
    じょう
    Grade: 1
    goon

    /d͡ʑɨau//d͡ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC dzyangX|dzyangH).

    Pronunciation edit

    • Pitch accent for suffix unknown.

    Noun edit

    (じょう) (じやう (zyau)?

    1. the first volume in a two- or three-volume set
      Antonym: (ge)

    Suffix edit

    (じょう) (-jōじやう (zyau)?

    1. from the standpoint of...
      ()(ろん)(じょう)はありえないこと
      riron- wa arienai koto
      something that is impossible according to theory
      (ほう)(りつ)(じょう)(そう)(しょう)
      hōritsu- no sōshō
      legal dispute
    2. aboard (a plane, ship, etc.)
    3. above, in, on
    Derived terms edit

    Proper noun edit

    (じょう) (じやう (zyau)?

    1. a surname

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 Kyōsuke Kindaichi, Haruhiko Kindaichi, Hidetoshi Kenbō, Takeshi Shibata, and Tadao Yamada, editors (1974) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Second edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    5. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun (wit sang))

    1. Hanja form? of (up; top; first; best).

    Compounds edit

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: thượng ((thì)(lượng)(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
    : Nôm readings: thượng[1][3][4][5]

    1. chữ Hán form of thượng (upper; higher; top).

    Compounds edit

    References edit