See also: and
U+4E0B, 下
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0B

[U+4E0A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0C]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一卜 (MY), four-corner 10230, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ancient
𠄟

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                 





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

In oracle bone script, it is an ideogram (指事) that shows the concept of "down" by showing one line below another (contrast ). This form evolved into 下 in later scripts, the character used today.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(k/g)la-k/j/t (to fall) (STEDT):

  • inside Sinitic, cognate with (OC *ɡ·raːɡ, “to fall, to drop”), (OC *ɡ·raːɡs, “dew”), (OC *l'aːlʔ, *l'alʔ, “to collapse”) and (OC *l'alʔ, *hljalʔ, “hillside, slope”);
  • outside Sinitic, cognate with Mizo tla ~ tlâk (to fall), thla ~ thlâk (to drop), Burmese ကျ (kya., to fall) and ချ (hkya., to drop).

Schuessler (2007) instead proposed an Austroasiatic origin by comparing (OC *ɡraːʔ, “to descend, down, below”) to Khmer [script needed] (gra'ka, be low, debased); additionally, he suggested that Sino-Tibetan influence had possibly caused the weakening of foreign final *-k to OC final *. He derives the departing tone (去聲) pronunciation via two derivations:

  • (OC *ɡraːs, “to be put down”) is an exopassive derivation (ibid.);
  • (OC *ɡraːs, “to descend, to fall”) is a later, general departing tone derivative (ibid.).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • ha4 - vernacular;
  • xia4 - literary.
  • Cantonese
  • Note: haa5 - “in a short time etc.”.
    Note:
    • hā - literary;
    • à - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • hâ - literary;
    • â, giâ - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hā/hǎ/hēe/hiěe - literary;
    • hē/hě/hēe/hiěe/khē/khě - vernacular (“to put”);
    • ē/ě/ēe/ěe - vernacular (“next; a short time”);
    • kē/kě/kēe/kiěe (often replaced by ) - vernacular (“low, short”).
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: hia6 / ê6 / ê7 / gê6 / hê6
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hiă / ĕ / ē / kĕ / hĕ
      • Sinological IPA (key): /hia³⁵/, /e³⁵/, /e¹¹/, /ke³⁵/, /he³⁵/
    Note:
    • hia6 - literary;
    • ê6 - vernacular;
    • ê7 - classifier;
    • gê6 - “low, short” (often replaced by ());
    • hê6 - “to put in, to start”.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 6gho - vernacular;
    • 5shia, 3shia - new literary;
    • 6ya, 6yo - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 下 (底) 下 (降) 下 (等一子)
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/
    Harbin /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/
    Jinan /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/
    Qingdao /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/
    Xi'an /xa⁴⁴/ ~頭 /ɕia⁴⁴/ /xa⁴⁴/
    Xining /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/
    Lanzhou /xa¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
    Ürümqi /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Wuhan /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/
    /xa³⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
    Guiyang /xa²¹³/
    /ɕia²¹³/
    /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Kunming /ɕia̠²¹²/ /ɕia̠²¹²/ /xa̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /xa⁴⁵/ /ɕia⁴⁵/ /xa⁴⁵/
    /ɕia⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/
    Hohhot /ɕiaʔ⁰/ /ɕia⁵⁵/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦo²³/
    /ɕia⁵³/
    /ɦo²³/
    /ɕia⁵³/
    /ɕiɪʔ⁵/ (歇)
    Suzhou /ɦo³¹/ /ɦo³¹/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦo³⁵/ /ɦo²²/ /o⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕia²²/
    /xa³⁵/
    /ɕia²²/
    /xa²²/
    /xa²²/
    Tunxi /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xa¹¹/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
    /ɕia¹¹/
    /xa¹¹/
    Xiangtan /ɦɒ²¹/ /ɕiɒ²¹/ /ɦɒ²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /ha⁴⁴/ /ha³¹/ /ha⁵³/
    Taoyuan /hɑ²⁴/ /hɑ⁵⁵/ /hɑ⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha²³/
    Nanning /ha²⁴/ /ha²²/ /ha²²/
    Hong Kong /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ha²²/
    /ke²²/
    /ha²²/ /ha²²/
    /e²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɑ²⁴²/ /kiɑ²⁴²/ /hɑ²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tai²¹/ /a⁴²/ /xa⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /e³⁵/ /hia³⁵/ /e³¹/
    Haikou (Hainanese) /ɛ³³/ /ɛ³³/ /ɛ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (98) (98)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Baxter haeX haeH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠaX/ /ɦˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚaX/ /ɦᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xià xià
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    haa6 haa6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xià xià
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X › ‹ H ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡˁraʔ/ /*m-ɡˁraʔ-s/
    English down descend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 13445 13446
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡraːʔ/ /*ɡraːs/
      This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
    Particularly: “Taishanese”

    Definitions edit

    1. (lower; inferior; located below)
      Antonym:
      1. low position
          ―  xiàcéng  ―  lower level
      2. lower part of; under
          ―  shùxià  ―  under the tree
          ―  lóuxià  ―  downstairs
        1. under the influence of; with
          這些條件这些条件  ―  zài zhèxiē tiáojiàn xià  ―  under these conditions
          朋友幫助朋友帮助  ―  zài péngyǒu de bāngzhù xià  ―  with help from friends
          藥師指導药师指导  ―  zài yàoshī zhǐdǎo xià  ―  under the instruction of a pharmacist
      3. later; next
        世紀世纪  ―  xià ge shìjì  ―  the next century
          ―  xiàjuǎn  ―  Volume II
      4. inferior, poor
          ―  xiàrén  ―  servant
          ―  xiàpǐn  ―  inferior products
      5. (Min Dong, Min Nan, Xiang) low (quantity or absolute position)
        alt. forms: (Min Nan)
    2. (intransitive) (to go to a lower place)
      Antonym:
      1. to go down; to descend (as complement) downwards; down
          ―  Nǐ kuài xià lái.  ―  Come down here.
          ―  xiàhǎi  ―  to go to sea
          ―  xiàlóu  ―  to go downstairs
          ―  xiàshān  ―  to go down the mountain
          ―  zǒuxià  ―  to walk down
          ―  luòxià  ―  to fall down
        深淵深渊  ―  tiàoxià shēnyuān  ―  to jump down to an abyss
        1. (as complement) completely, thoroughly
            ―  xià  ―  to capture; to arrest
          基礎基础  ―  xià jīchǔ  ―  to lay the foundation
      2. to get out of; to leave; to alight; to get off
          ―  xiàchuán  ―  to disembark from a boat
          ―  xiàchuáng  ―  to get out of bed
        1. to finish, to complete
            ―  xiàbān  ―  to get off work
            ―  xià  ―  to finish class
      3. to go to somewhere considered poor or inferior
          ―  xiàxiāng  ―  to go to the countryside
        館子馆子  ―  xiàguǎnzǐ  ―  to go to the restaurant
          ―  xià  ―  to be forced to step down
      4. (colloquial) Short for 下線 (“to log out”).
    3. (transitive) (to move something to a lower place)
      1. (with limited objects, often figuratively) to put something down
          ―  xià  ―  to start writing (lit., "to put the inkbrush down")
          ―  xiàjiǎo  ―  to have a small place to stand in (lit., "to put the feet down")
          ―  xiàyào  ―  to drug someone (lit., "to put the drug down")
          ―  xià  ―  to stay the night (lit., "to put the bed down")
        1. to put food into boiling water
          麵條面条  ―  xià miàntiáo  ―  to put noodles into boiling water
          餃子饺子  ―  xià jiǎozǐ  ―  to put dumplings into boiling water
        2. to rain or snow
            ―  xiàxuě  ―  to snow
            ―  xià  ―  to rain
        3. to give birth (as an animal)
          豬仔猪仔  ―  xià zhūzaǐ  ―  to have piglets
            ―  xiàdàn  ―  to lay eggs
        4. (colloquial) Short for 下載 (“to download”).
          軟件软件  ―  Xiān qù xià ge ruǎnjiàn.  ―  Download the software first.
      2. to give or issue something to an inferior person
          ―  xiàlìng  ―  to issue an order
        1. to send an invitation
          戰書战书  ―  xià zhànshū  ―  to send a letter of challenge
      3. to conquer
          ―  lián xià sān chéng  ―  to achieve three goals successively (lit. "to conquer three forts successively")
    4. (a short time)
      1. (historical, obsolete) Synonym of (diǎn): an ancient unit of time, equal to 24 minutes
      2. (colloquial) (as complement) Short for 一下.
        alt. forms: (Cantonese)
        1. for a short time; for one moment
            ―  děng xià  ―  wait a moment
        2. give something a go
            ―  kàn xià  ―  take a look
          [Cantonese]  ―  tai2 haa5 [Jyutping]  ―  take a look
          [Cantonese]  ―  man4 haa5 [Jyutping]  ―  try smelling it
      3. Classifier for the number of occurrences: time
          ―  Qiāo sān xià mén.  ―  Knock at the door three times.

    Synonyms edit

    See also edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ka); () (ge)
    • Korean: 하(下) (ha)
    • Vietnamese: hạ ()

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    した
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /sita//ɕita/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *sita.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (した) (shita

    1. the underneath
      Antonym: (ue)
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    しも
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨simo1/simʷo//ɕimo/

    From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *simo.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (しも) (shimo

    1. the lower portion, end
      Antonym: (kami)
    2. lowness in degree or rank
    3. the downstream portion of a river
    4. the downriver area
    5. the area farther from the capital
    6. the last part of a month, year, etc.
    7. the lower half of the body
    8. (euphemistic) private parts
    9. (euphemistic) feces and urine, excrement
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    もと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    Cognate with (moto, origin).[3][4]

    Alternative forms edit

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (もと) (moto

    1. the lower portion, base
    2. under the influence of
      (どう)()もと []
      dōi no moto, []
      with permission, []

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC haeX|haeH).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (ge

    1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC haeX|haeH).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    Pronunciation edit

    Affix edit

    () (ka

    1. down; below; beneath

    Suffix edit

    () (-ka

    1. under a situation

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
    3. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 아래 (arae ha))

    1. (only used in compounds) Hanja form? of (below; bottom; lower; underneath).

    Compounds edit

    Okinawan edit

    Etymology edit

    Attested in the 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”) as しちや.[1]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (shita).

    Noun edit

    (hiragana しちゃ, romaji shicha)

    1. the below

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 1896: 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/46

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    From Proto-Japonic *sita.

    Noun edit

    (sita) (kana した)

    1. the below
      1. looking down
        • 711–712, Kojiki, (poem 57):
          ...佐斯夫袁佐斯夫能紀斯賀斯多迩淤斐陀弖流波毘呂由都麻都婆岐...
          ...sasibu wo sasibu no2 ki2 si ga sita ni opi2dateru pabi1ro2 yu tu ma-tubaki1...
          (please add an English translation of this quotation)
      2. a place
        • 711–712, Kojiki, (poem 5):
          ..多久夫須麻佐夜具賀斯多爾阿和由岐能和加夜流牟泥遠多久豆怒能斯路岐多陀牟岐...
          ...takubusuma sayagu ga sita ni wakayaru mune wo takuduno1 no2 siro1ki1 tadamuki...
          (please add an English translation of this quotation)
      Antonym: (upe2)
    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (shita)

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Proto-Japonic *simo.

    Noun edit

    (simo1 → simo) (kana しも)

    1. the lower part
      Antonym: (kami1)
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (shimo)

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: hạ[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: hạ[1][2][3]

    1. chữ Hán form of hạ (to lower; to bring down; to take down).

    Compounds edit

    References edit