See also: and
U+4E0B, 下
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0B

[U+4E0A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0C]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 1, +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一卜 (MY), four-corner 10230, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠄟

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                 





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

in its shell and bone form is an ideogram (指事) that shows the concept of down by showing one line below another (contrast ). The shell and bone form evolved into , the character used today.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(k/g)la-k/y/t (to fall) (STEDT);

insides Sinitic, cognate to (OC *ɡ·raːɡ) "to fall, to drop", (OC *ɡ·raːɡs) "dew", (OC *l'aːlʔ, *l'alʔ) "to collapse" and (OC *l'alʔ, *hljalʔ) "hillside, slope";
outsides Sinitic, cognate to Mizo tla ~ tlâk (to fall), thla ~ thlâk (to drop), Burmese ကျ (kya., to fall) and ချ (hkya., to drop).

Schuessler (2007) instead proposed an Austroasiatic origin by comparing (OC graːʔ) "to descend, down, below" to Khmer [script needed] (gra'ka, be low, debased); additionally, he suggested that Sino-Tibetan influence had possibly caused the weakening of foreign final *-k to OC final *.

(OC *gra:s) "to be put down" is an exopassive derivation (ibid.);
(OC *gra:s) "to descend, to fall" is a later, general 去聲去声 (qùshēng) derivative (ibid.).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ha4 - vernacular;
  • xia4 - literary.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • hā - literary;
    • à - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • hâ - literary;
    • â, giâ - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hā/hǎ/hēe - literary;
    • hē/hě/hēe/khē/khě, ē/ě/ēe, kē/kě/kēe (often replaced by ) - vernacular.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: hia6 / ê6 / ê7 / gê6 / hê6
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hiă / ĕ / ē / kĕ / hĕ
      • Sinological IPA (key): /hia³⁵/, /e³⁵/, /e¹¹/, /ke³⁵/, /he³⁵/
    Note:
    • hia6 - literary;
    • ê6 - vernacular;
    • ê7 - classifier;
    • gê6 - “low, short”;
    • hê6 - “to put in, to start”.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hho - vernacular;
    • 2xia - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 下 (底) 下 (降) 下 (等一子)
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/
    Harbin /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/
    Jinan /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/
    Qingdao /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/
    Xi'an /xa⁴⁴/ ~頭 /ɕia⁴⁴/ /xa⁴⁴/
    Xining /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/
    Lanzhou /xa¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
    Ürümqi /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Wuhan /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/
    /xa³⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
    Guiyang /xa²¹³/
    /ɕia²¹³/
    /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Kunming /ɕia̠²¹²/ /ɕia̠²¹²/ /xa̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /xa⁴⁵/ /ɕia⁴⁵/ /xa⁴⁵/
    /ɕia⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/
    Hohhot /ɕiaʔ⁰/ /ɕia⁵⁵/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦo²³/
    /ɕia⁵³/
    /ɦo²³/
    /ɕia⁵³/
    /ɕiɪʔ⁵/ (歇)
    Suzhou /ɦo³¹/ /ɦo³¹/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦo³⁵/ /ɦo²²/ /o⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕia²²/
    /xa³⁵/
    /ɕia²²/
    /xa²²/
    /xa²²/
    Tunxi /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xa¹¹/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
    /ɕia¹¹/
    /xa¹¹/
    Xiangtan /ɦɒ²¹/ /ɕiɒ²¹/ /ɦɒ²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /ha⁴⁴/ /ha³¹/ /ha⁵³/
    Taoyuan /hɑ²⁴/ /hɑ⁵⁵/ /hɑ⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha²³/
    Nanning /ha²⁴/ /ha²²/ /ha²²/
    Hong Kong /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ha²²/
    /ke²²/
    /ha²²/ /ha²²/
    /e²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɑ²⁴²/ /kiɑ²⁴²/ /hɑ²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tai²¹/ /a⁴²/ /xa⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /e³⁵/ /hia³⁵/ /e³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ɛ³³/ /ɛ³³/ /ɛ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (98) (98)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠaX/ /ɦˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚaX/ /ɦᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xià xià
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xià xià
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X › ‹ H ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡˁraʔ/ /*m-ɡˁraʔ-s/
    English down descend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 13445 13446
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡraːʔ/ /*ɡraːs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (lower; inferior; located below)
      Antonym: (shàng)
      1. low position
      2. lower part of; under
        1. under the influence of; with
      3. later; next
      4. inferior, poor
        •   ―  xiàrén  ―  servant
        •   ―  xiàpǐn  ―  inferior products
    2. (to go to a lower place)
      Antonym: (shàng)
      1. to go down; to descend (as complement) downwards; down
        • /   ―  Nǐ kuài xià lái.  ―  Come down here.
        •   ―  xiàhǎi  ―  to go to sea
        • /   ―  xiàlóu  ―  to go downstairs
        •   ―  xiàshān  ―  to go down the mountain
        •   ―  zǒuxià  ―  to walk down
        •   ―  luòxià  ―  to fall down
        • 深淵 / 深渊  ―  tiàoxià shēnyuān  ―  to jump down to an abyss
        1. (as complement) completely, thoroughly
      2. to get out of; to leave
        •   ―  xiàchuán  ―  to disembark from a boat
        •   ―  xiàchuáng  ―  to get out of bed
        1. to finish, to complete
          •   ―  xiàbān  ―  to get off work
          • /   ―  xià  ―  to finish class
      3. to go to somewhere considered poor or inferior
        • /   ―  xiàxiāng  ―  to go to the countryside
        • 館子 / 馆子  ―  xiàguǎnzǐ  ―  to go to the restaurant
        •   ―  xià  ―  to be forced to step down
      4. (colloquial) Short for 下線 (“to log out”).
    3. (to move something to a lower place)
      1. (with limited objects, often figuratively) to put something down
        • /   ―  xià  ―  to start writing (lit., "to put the inkbrush down")
        •   ―  xiàjiǎo  ―  to have a small place to stand in (lit., "to put the feet down")
        • /   ―  xiàyào  ―  to drug someone (lit., "to put the drug down")
        •   ―  xià  ―  to stay the night (lit., "to put the bed down")
        1. to put food into boiling water
          • 麵條 / 面条  ―  xià miàntiáo  ―  to put noodles into boiling water
          • 餃子 / 饺子  ―  xià jiǎozǐ  ―  to put dumplings into boiling water
        2. to rain or snow
          •   ―  xiàxuě  ―  to snow
          •   ―  xià  ―  to rain
        3. to give birth (as an animal)
          • 豬仔 / 猪仔  ―  xià zhūzaǐ  ―  to have piglets
          •   ―  xiàdàn  ―  to lay eggs
        4. (colloquial) Short for 下載 (“to download”).
      2. to give or issue something to an inferior person
        •   ―  xiàlìng  ―  to issue an order
        1. to send an invitation
          • 戰書 / 战书  ―  xià zhànshū  ―  to send a letter of challenge
      3. to conquer
        • /   ―  lián xià sān chéng  ―  to achieve three goals successively (lit. "to conquer three forts successively")
    4. (a short time)
      1. (historical, obsolete) Synonym of : an ancient unit of time, equal to 24 minutes
      2. (colloquial) (as complement) Short for 一下.
        1. for a short time; for one moment
          •   ―  děng xià  ―  wait a moment
        2. give something a go
          •   ―  kàn xià  ―  take a look
      3. Classifier for the number of occurances: time
        • /   ―  Qiāo sān xià mén.  ―  Knock at the door three times.

    See alsoEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ka); () (ge)
    • Korean: (, ha)
    • Vietnamese: hạ ()

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    した
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /sita//ɕita/

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (した) (shita

    1. the below
      Antonym: (ue)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しも
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨simo1/simʷo//ɕimo/

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (しも) (shimo

    1. the lower portion, end
      Antonym: (kami)
    2. low in degree or rank
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    もと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with (moto, origin).[3][4]

    Alternative formsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (もと) (moto

    1. the lower portion, base
    2. under the influence of

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠaX, ɦˠaH).

    The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ge

    1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠaX, ɦˠaH).

    The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    AffixEdit

    () (ka

    1. down; below; beneath

    SuffixEdit

    () (-ka

    1. under a situation

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 아래 (arae ha))

    1. (only used in compounds) Hanja form? of (below; bottom; lower; underneath).

    CompoundsEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Attested in the 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”) as しちや.[1]

    Cognate with mainland Japanese (shita).

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しちゃ, romaji shicha)

    1. the below

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1896: 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/46



    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    NounEdit

    (sita) (kana した)

    1. the below
      1. looking down
        • 711712, Kojiki (poem 57)
          ...佐斯夫袁佐斯夫能紀斯賀斯多迩淤斐陀弖流波毘呂由都麻都婆岐...
          ...sasibu wo sasibu no2 ki2 si ga sita ni opi2dateru pabi1ro2 yu tu ma-tubaki1...
          (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      2. a place
        • 711712, Kojiki (poem 5)
          ..多久夫須麻佐夜具賀斯多爾阿和由岐能和加夜流牟泥遠多久豆怒能斯路岐多陀牟岐...
          ...takubusuma sayagu ga sita ni wakayaru mune wo takuduno1 no2 siro1ki1 tadamuki...
          (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      Antonym: (upe2)
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (shita)

    Etymology 2Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    NounEdit

    (simo1 → simo) (kana しも)

    1. the lower part
      Antonym: (kami1)
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (shimo)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: hạ[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: hạ[1][2][3]

    1. Hán tự form of hạ (to lower; to bring down; to take down).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit