See also: 孤独

ChineseEdit

lone; lonely
 
alone; independent; single
alone; independent; single; sole; only
trad. (孤獨)
simp. (孤独)
anagram 獨孤独孤

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (28) (7)
Final () (23) (3)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuo/ /duk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuo/ /duk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ko/ /duk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔ/ /dəwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ko/ /duk̚/
Wang
Li
/ku/ /duk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuo/ /dʱuk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gu1 duk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ku › ‹ duwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʷˁa/ /*[d]ˁok/
English orphan alone; only

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 4347 11818
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷaː/ /*doːɡ/

AdjectiveEdit

孤獨

  1. lonely; lonesome; solitary; desolate
    孤獨終老 / 孤独终老  ―  gūdú zhōnglǎo  ―  to die alone; to die a lonely death
    心底孤獨嘆息 [MSC, trad.]
    心底孤独叹息 [MSC, simp.]
    xīndǐ de gūdú hé tànxī [Pinyin]
    endless sighs from lonely souls
  2. isolated and helpless
SynonymsEdit
  • (lonely):

NounEdit

孤獨

  1. (literary, dated) people living in isolation without support (literally, orphans and childless old people)
    矜寡孤獨有所 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    矜寡孤独有所 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Book of Rites, circa 4th – 2nd century BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Guānguǎ gūdú fèijí zhě jiē yǒusuǒ yǎng. [Pinyin]
    (They showed kindness and compassion to) widows, orphans, childless men, and those who were disabled by disease, so that they were all sufficiently maintained.
    百年孤獨 / 百年孤独  ―  bǎinián gūdú  ―  One Hundred Years of Solitude
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (孤獨):
  • Vietnamese: cô độc (孤獨)

Pronunciation 2Edit


AdjectiveEdit

孤獨

  1. (Min Nan) antisocial