U+5B64, 孤
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B64

[U+5B63]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B65]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 39, +5 in Chinese, 子+6 in Japanese, 8 strokes in Chinese, 9 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 弓木竹女人 (NDHVO), four-corner 12430, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 279, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6966
  • Dae Jaweon: page 547, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1014, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5B64

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kʷaː): semantic (child) + phonetic (OC *kʷraː).

Etymology edit

Related to (OC *kʷraːʔ, “alone; widow”), (OC *kruːn, *kruːns, “widower”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ku⁵⁵/
Harbin /ku⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ku²¹/
Jinan /ku²¹³/
Qingdao /ku²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ku²⁴/
Xi'an /ku²¹/
Xining /kv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ku⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ku³¹/
Ürümqi /ku⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ku⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ku⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ku⁵⁵/
Kunming /ku⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ku³¹/
Hefei /ku²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ku¹¹/
Pingyao /ku¹³/
Hohhot /ku³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ku⁵³/
Suzhou /kəu⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ku³³/
Wenzhou /ku³³/
Hui Shexian /ku³¹/
Tunxi /ku¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ku³³/
Xiangtan /ku³³/
Gan Nanchang /ku⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /ku⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /ku⁵³/
Nanning /ku⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /ku⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kɔ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ku⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ku⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kou³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ku²³/ ~獨
/kɔu²³/ ~寒

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter ku
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/ko/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔ/
Li
Rong
/ko/
Wang
Li
/ku/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gu1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ku ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʷˁa/
English orphan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4347
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷaː/

Definitions edit

  1. orphaned; parentless
  2. alone; solitary
  3. orphan
  4. (usually by an emperor or a king) I

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. solitude, alone
  2. orphan

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ku).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

() (ko

  1. an orphan
  2. solitude

Adjective edit

() (ko-na (adnominal () (ko na), adverbial () (ko ni))

  1. solitary

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
みなしご
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Jukujikun kanji use for the term みなしご, itself a compound of (mi, identity, family) + (nashi, none, without) + (ko, child). The final syllable's ko reading changes to go due to rendaku (連濁).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /mi.na.si.ɡo/, [minäɕiɡo̞], [minäɕiŋo̞]

Noun edit

(みなしご) (minashigo

  1. orphan

References edit

  1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC ku). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwo) (Yale: ko) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 외로울 (oeroul go))

  1. Hanja form? of (solitude; orphan).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: , co, còi, côi, go,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.