U+53E4, 古
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53E4

[U+53E3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53E5]
See also: and 𠮷

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 30 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 十口 (JR), four-corner 40600, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 171, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3233
  • Dae Jaweon: page 380, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 568, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+53E4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠖠 archaic

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːls
*kaːls
*kɯ, *kas
*kaː, *kʰaː
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː, *kaːs, *ɡaːʔ
*kaː
*kaː
*kaː, *kaːʔ, *kaːs
*kaː, *kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːʔ
*kaːs
*kaːs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kaːɡs
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaː
*kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs
*qʰaː, *ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaː
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ
*ɡaːʔ, *ɡaːɡs
*ɡaːʔ
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka, *kas, *kʰa
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka
*ka, *ɡa
*kas
*kas
*kas
*ɡaːɡ

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (ten) + (mouth; generation) – ten generations; ancient.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r-ga(old). Cognate with (OC *kaːs, “old things; former; dead”) and Tibetan རྒ(rga, to be old; aged).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/koX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔX/
Li
Rong
/koX/
Wang
Li
/kuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˤaʔ/
English ancient

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4219
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. the past; ancient times
      ―  jīn  ―  ancient and modern times
  2. old; ancient
  3. classic; old-styled
  4. simple; unaffected; unsophisticated
  5. things in the past; antiquities; history
  6. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min Nan) story
    / [Cantonese]  ―  gong2 gu2 [Jyutping]  ―  to tell a story
  7. Short for 古體詩古体诗 (“ancient-style poem”).
  8. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

inisipe > inisiɸe > inisiwe > inisie. Literally "that which has passed". From the verb pass(inu) in adverbial form ini, the past marker (ki) in attributive form si, and (pe, time, direction).

NounEdit

‎(hiragana いにしえ, romaji inishie, historical hiragana いにしへ)

  1. the past
  2. ancient times

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(go)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: go, McCune-Reischauer: ko)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: ye, McCune-Reischauer: ye)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(cổ, cỗ, kẻ, khương)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.