U+7684, 的
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7684

[U+7683]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7685]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 106, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹日心戈 (HAPI), four-corner 27620, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 786, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2644, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+7684

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *pleːwɢ) : semantic (white) + phonetic (OC *pljewɢ, *bljewɢ).

The original form was with the meaning of “bright”, hence the initial semantic. See Etymology 1 below.

Etymology 1

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms

“Bright”. Compare .

The sense of “mark in a target” may be secondary. Alternatively, it may be an independent root on its own. Compare Tibetan རྟགས (rtags, mark, sign).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • dì - “bright; target”;
  • dí - “true; truly”.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (127)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter tek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tek̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tek̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɛk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛjk̚/
Li
Rong
/tek̚/
Wang
Li
/tiek̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tiek̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
di
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dik1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tek ›
Old
Chinese
/*[t-l]ˁewk/
English bright; mark in a target

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11210
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pleːwɢ/

Definitions

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  1. bright; clear; distinct
    alt. forms: ancient
  2. white; white-coloured
  3. white forehead of horses; white-foreheaded horse
  4. centre of target for archery
    alt. forms: ()
  5. aim; standard; criterion
  6. target; objective
      ―    ―  purpose, aim, goal
  7. (historical) red dot worn on the centre of the forehead by women; bindi
    alt. forms: ancient
  8. Alternative form of (, lotus seed)
  9. true; real (Can we add an example for this sense?)
  10. really; truly; certainly
      ―  què  ―  truly

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms
Taiwan
der Internet
Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
Taiwan
der Internet
Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien
 

First attested in the Tang Dynasty as . This glyph was borrowed later to represent de, the possessive marker in Northern Chinese, superseding the earlier as a way to write this word.

There are three main competing proposals for its etymology:

  • Derived from the lenition of the literary genitive marker (OC *tjɯ) (Demiéville, 1950; Wang, 1958; Mei, 1988), which is still preserved in many phrases, and in the written form to some extent, especially in Taiwan.
  • Derived from the lenition of (OC *tjaːʔ, “nominalizer > medieval possessive”) (Lü, 1943; Yuan et al., 1996; Yang, R., 2016). Note that 的 is also a nominalizer like 者 in Classical Chinese.
  • Derived from the lenition of Middle Chinese demonstrative (MC tejX) (Shi, 2015, 2023).

If from either of the first two etymons, possibly cognate with the demonstrative (zhè).

Possibly cognate with the particle sense of , which is homophonic but now has its specialised usage.

In contemporary times it is also used to represent unrelated equivalent particles in other Chinese varieties. Examples include Hokkien ê (, , or , possibly derived from [1]), Eastern Min (), Wu geq () and Cantonese ge3 ( < ).

Pronunciation

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Note: dì and di - in poetry, songs, slangs.
Note: chiefly in formal writing.
Note: chiefly in formal writing.
Note: Etymologically unrelated.
Note:
  • ê and --ê - etymologically unrelated. --ê is the generic classifier and ê is the possessive particle (pronunciations different);
  • tek/tiak - literary (only in formal writing);
  • tit - vernacular (only in formal writing).
Note: only in formal writing.

Definitions

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(chiefly Mandarin, Jin, Xiang)

  1. Used after an attribute. Indicates that the previous word has possession of the next one. It functions like ’s in English (or like the word “of” but with the position of possessor and possessee switched). ’s; of
      ―  de shū  ―  my book(s)
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè běn shū shì lǎo Wáng de. [Pinyin]
    This book is Wang’s.
    玩笑 [MSC, trad.]
    玩笑 [MSC, simp.]
    Bié kāi tā de wánxiào le. [Pinyin]
    Don't make fun of him.
      ―  shé de  ―  the snake’s poison
    人民國家人民国家  ―  rénmín de guójiā  ―  the People’s Country
    alt. forms: dated
  2. Used to link a noun, an adjective or a phrase to a noun to describe it. that; who
    紅色氣球红色气球  ―  hóngsè de qìqiú  ―  a red balloon
    紀律纪律  ―  tiě de jìlǜ  ―  iron discipline
    北京火車北京火车  ―  qù Běijīng de huǒchē  ―  The train that goes to Beijing
    昨天昨天  ―  zuótiān lái de rén  ―  The people who came yesterday
    今天開會主席 [MSC, trad.]
    今天开会主席 [MSC, simp.]
    Jīntiān kāihuì shì nǐ de zhǔxí. [Pinyin]
    You will chair today's meeting. (You, the chairperson, are to attend the meeting today.)
      ―  dehuà  ―  particle put at the end of a conditional clause
    alt. forms: obsolete
  3. Used to form a noun phrase or nominal expression.
      ―  Wǒ ài chī là de.  ―  I like hot (or peppery) food.
    菊花 [MSC, trad.]
    菊花 [MSC, simp.]
    Júhuā kāi le, yǒu hóng de, yǒu huáng de. [Pinyin]
    The chrysanthemums are in bloom; some are red and some yellow.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shuō tā de, wǒ gàn wǒ de. [Pinyin]
    Let him say what he likes; I'll just get on with my work.
    火車聊天聊天 [MSC, trad.]
    火车聊天聊天 [MSC, simp.]
    Huǒchē shàng kàn shū de kàn shū, liáotiān de liáotiān. [Pinyin]
    On the train some people were reading and some were chatting.
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ yào liǎng ge sān máo de. [Pinyin]
    I want two of the thirty-cent ones. (i.e. two items worth thirty cents each)
    無緣無故什麼 [MSC, trad.]
    无缘无故什么 [MSC, simp.]
    Wúyuánwúgù de, nǐ zháo shénme jí? [Pinyin]
    Why do you get excited for no reason at all?
    這裡只管 [MSC, trad.]
    这里只管 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèlǐ yòng bù zháo nǐ, nǐ zhǐguǎn shuì nǐ de qù. [Pinyin]
    We don't need you here. Just go to bed.
    alt. forms: obsolete
  4. Used after a verb or between a verb and its object to stress an element of the sentence. It can be used with (shì) to surround the stressed element.
      ―  Shéi mǎi de?  ―  Who bought it?
    嗓子怎麼?—— [MSC, trad.]
    嗓子怎么?—— [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ sǎngzǐ zěnme yǎ le? — Chàng de. [Pinyin]
    Why are you so hoarse? —From singing.
    稿子 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Shì wǒ dǎ de gǎozi, tā shàng de sè. [Pinyin]
    It was I who worked up the sketch and he who filled in the colours.
    昨天 [MSC, trad.]
    昨天 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shì zuótiān jìn de chéng. [Pinyin]
    He went to town yesterday. (It's yesterday that he went to town)
    車站 [MSC, trad.]
    车站 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ shì zài chēzhàn dǎ de piào. [Pinyin]
    I bought the ticket at the station. (It's in the station that I bought the ticket)
  5. Used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis.
    你們辛苦 [MSC, trad.]
    你们辛苦 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐmen zhè liǎng tiān zhēn gòu xīnkǔ de. [Pinyin]
    You've really been working hard the past few days.
  6. Used to express the idea of “of that kind”.
    針頭線腦针头线脑  ―  zhēntóuxiànnǎo de  ―  things such as needles and threads
  7. (informal) Used to express multiplication or addition. and, by
    屋子十五平方米 [MSC, trad.]
    屋子十五平方米 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiān wūzǐ shì wǔ mǐ de sān mǐ, hé shíwǔ píngfāngmǐ. [Pinyin]
    This room is five metres by three, or fifteen square metres.
    一共 [MSC, trad.]
    一共 [MSC, simp.]
    Liǎng ge de sān ge, yīgòng wǔ ge. [Pinyin]
    Two pieces and three pieces—there are five in all.
Usage notes
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  • (possession particle): is usually omitted when referring to a close relationship (family, close friends) or to an institutional or organizational relationship (school, work).
    媽媽妈妈  ―  zhè shì wǒ māma  ―  This is my mother
    我們學校我们学校  ―  zhè shì wǒmen xuéxiào  ―  This is our school
  • (particle linking a noun and an adjective): is omitted if it is used with a single-syllable adjective.
    壞人坏人  ―  huàirén  ―  bad person
  • It must be used when the adjective has more than one syllable or if the adjective is qualified by an adverb.
    奇怪  ―  qíguài de rén  ―  strange person
      ―  hěn hǎo de chá  ―  a very good tea
  • is also omitted when the association is frequent
    中國人中国人  ―  zhōngguórén  ―  Chinese people
  • When necessary, the character is referred to as 白勺的 (bái sháo de) to differentiate it from the homophones (雙人得双人得 (shuāng rén dé)) and (土也地 (tǔ yě dì)). In addition, these three particles should not to be confused with each other. Compare these three phrases:
    無奈嘆息无奈叹息  ―  wúnài de tànxī  ―  helpless sigh
    無奈嘆息无奈叹息  ―  wúnài de tànxī  ―  sigh helplessly
    無奈嘆息无奈叹息  ―  wúnài de tànxī  ―  feel helpless with sighing
  • In Mandarin slang usage, can be pronounced as di, and substituted by the character () in writing:
      ―  hǎo di  ―  okay (where the standard form is "好的")
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Descendants

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  • Wutunhua: -de
  • Khmer: ទី (tii)

Etymology 3

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Phonetic syllable used to transcribe certain syllables in foreign loanwords.

Pronunciation

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Note: dī - Chinese Mainland pronunciation, used in “的士” and related words.

Definitions

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  1. Used in transcription.
      ―  shì/shì  ―  taxi
    黎波里  ―  líbōlǐ  ―  Tripoli
  2. Short for 的士 (dīshì, “taxi”).
      ―    ―  to take/hire a taxi

Compounds

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References

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  1. ^ Douglas, Carstairs (1873) “dê”, in Chinese-English Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of Amoy, [With 1923 Supplement after the Appendix by Thomas Barclay, Shanghai: Commercial Press, Ltd.] edition (overall work in Hokkien and English), London: Trübner & Co., page 99; New Edition (With Chinese Character Glosses) edition, London: Presbyterian Church of England, 1899, page 99

Further reading

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
てき
Grade: 4
on’yomi

Repurposed from the target meaning, probably from Ming- and Qing-era Mandarin use of this character as a possessive or adjectivizing particle,[1] or even earlier in the Song and Yuan eras.[2][3] Probably also influenced in the Meiji period by the English adjective ending -tic (as in spastic, plastic, or characteristic), ultimately deriving from Ancient Greek -τικός (-tikós), used to form adjectives from verbs.[1][2][4][3][5]

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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(てき) (-teki-na (adnominal (てき) (-teki na), adverbial (てき) (-teki ni))

  1. -ive, -like, -ish, -ic, -ical, -y, kind of, sort of
    Used to form 形容動詞 (keiyō dōshi, na adjectives) from nouns. The resulting term has a 平板型 (heiban-gata, flat type) or type 0 pitch accent pattern.
    (ちゅう)(ごく)(ふん)()()(ちゅう)(ごく)(てき)(ふん)()()
    Chūgoku no fun'iki, Chūgoku-teki na fun'iki
    China's atmosphere, a Chinese kind of atmosphere
    Used to form similar items from complex noun phrases.
    (かれ)(ほん)()(てき)歌詞(かし)
    kare no honne-teki na kashi
    lyrics that are like his true feelings

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
てき
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (tek, literally “mark in a target”, also meaning “bright”).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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(てき) (teki

  1. target
  2. bright, clear
Derived terms
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Noun

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(てき) (teki

  1. Alternative spelling of : (rare) enemy, opponent
Alternative forms
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Pronoun

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(てき) (teki

  1. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) he, she, it, that one
  2. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) you
Alternative forms
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Synonyms
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  • (derogatory for “he, she, it”): あいつ (aitsu)
  • (derogatory for “you”): おまえ (omae)

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
まと
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Possibly originally a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (to, place). Appears to be cognate with homophone (mato, round, adjective, obsolete in modern Japanese).[1]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(まと) (mato

  1. a target, a mark, a bullseye
    ()(まと)()たる。
    Ya ga mato ni ataru.
    The arrow hits the target.
  2. an objective, an object (of doing something)
Synonyms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
いくは
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

  • May be derived from rare archaic verb いくう (ikuu, to shoot [an arrow] at something, archaic spelling いくふ).[1]
The ha element would presumably derive from the verb ending (fu), which has a 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of ha. However, this is unlikely, as verb forms ending in -fu underwent the regular f- and h- > w- shift, which would result in a reading of *ikuwa rather than the correct ikuha.
  • The above phonetic discrepancy suggests that ikuha may instead be a compound of iku + ha. The iku element probably derives from root component いく (iku) meaning “shooting [arrows]”, as found in いくう (ikuu) and also in (ikusa, a battle, original meaning “the shooting of arrows”).[1] The iku element might be related to verb 射る (iru, to shoot an arrow), or obsolete verb 生く (iku, to live; to make something live, to make something go), likely cognate with 行く (iku, to go).
The ha element is uncertain. It might be (ha, the edge or end of something), from the sense “the end [of the arrow's flight]”.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(いくは) (ikuha

  1. (archery, rare) an archery target
Derived terms
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Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
ゆくは
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Alteration of ikuha above. Compare the iku <> yuku alteration in the verb 行く (iku, yuku, to go).

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [jɯ̟ᵝkɯ̟ᵝha̠]

Noun

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(ゆくは) (yukuha

  1. (archery, rare) an archery target

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  5. ^ Masuda, Wataru (2000) Joshua A. Fogel, transl., Japan and China: Mutual Representations in the Modern Era, Routledge, →ISBN

Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 과녁 (gwanyeok jeok))

  1. Hanja form? of (-ive, -like, -ish, -ic, -ical, -y, kind of, sort of).
  2. Hanja form? of (target).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: đích, đét, đít, điếc, đếch, đễ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds

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