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U+7684, 的
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7684

[U+7683]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7685]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 106, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹日心戈 (HAPI), four-corner 27620, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 786, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 22692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1201, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2644, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+7684

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*preːwɢs
*preːwɢs, *preːwɢ
*breːw, *b·reːwɢs
*ʔreːwɢs, *ʔreːwɢ
*plew, *pʰlew, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*ʔlewɢs, *ʔlewɢ
*pleːwʔ, *pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢs
*teːwɢs
*ɡleːwʔ, *spʰlewɢ, *pl'ewɢ, *bljewɢ, *pleːwɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ
*pljewɢ, *bljewɢ
*bljewɢ, *sbreːwɢ
*bljewɢ
*qlewɢ, *qreːwɢ
礿 *lewɢ
*preːwɢ, *pleːwɢ
*breːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ
*pleːwɢ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pleːwɢ): semantic  (white) + phonetic  (OC *pljewɢ, *bljewɢ).

The original form was with the meaning of “bright”, hence the initial semantic. See Etymology 1 below.

Etymology 1Edit

“Bright”. Compare .

The sense of “mark in a target” may be secondary. Alternatively, it may be an independent root on its own. Compare Tibetan རྟགས (rtags, mark, sign).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • dì - “bright; target”;
  • dí - “true; truly”.
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (127)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tek̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tek̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɛk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tɛjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /tek̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /tiek̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tiek̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    di
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tek ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t-l]ˁewk/
    English bright; mark in a target

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11210
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*pleːwɢ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. bright; clear; distinct
      alt. forms: ancient
    2. white; white-coloured
    3. white forehead of horses; white-foreheaded horse
    4. centre of target for archery
    5. aim; standard; criterion
    6. target; objective
        ―    ―  purpose, aim, goal
    7. (historical) red dot worn on the centre of the forehead by women; bindu
      alt. forms: ancient
    8. Alternative form of (, “lotus seed”).
    9. true; real
    10. really; truly; certainly
      /   ―  què  ―  truly

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    This glyph was borrowed later to represent de, the possessive marker in Northern Chinese, superseding the earlier as a way to write this word.

    There are two main competing proposals for its etymology:

    Possibly cognate with the particle sense of , which is homophonic but now has its specialised usage.

    Compare the stylized Zhuyin variant of in Taiwan: .

    In contemporary times it is also used to represent unrelated equivalent particles in other Chinese varieties. Examples include Min Nan ê (, , or , possibly derived from ), Min Dong (), Wu geq () and Cantonese ge3 ( < ).

    Languages in the East Asian Sprachbund share a common possessive structure; compare Japanese (no), Korean (ui), Tibetan གི (gi).

    PronunciationEdit


    Note: dì and di - in poetry, songs, slangs.
    Note: chiefly in formal writing.
    Note: chiefly in formal writing.
    Note: Etymologically unrelated.
    Note:
    • ê and --ê - etymologically unrelated. --ê is the generic classifier and ê is the possessive particle (pronunciations different).;
    • tek/tiak - literary (only in formal writing);
    • tit - vernacular (only in formal writing).
    Note: only in formal writing.

    DefinitionsEdit

    (chiefly Mandarin, Jin, Xiang)

    1. Used after an attribute. Indicates that the previous word has possession of the next one. It functions like ’s in English (or like the word “of” but with the position of possessor and possessee switched). ’s; of
      /   ―  de shū  ―  my book
      /   ―  Zhè běn shū shì lǎo Wáng de.  ―  This book is Wang’s.
      今天開會主席 [MSC, trad.]
      今天开会主席 [MSC, simp.]
      Jīntiān kāihuì shì nǐ de zhǔxí. [Pinyin]
      You will chair today's meeting.
      玩笑 / 玩笑  ―  Bié kāi tā de wánxiào le.  ―  Don't make fun of him.
        ―  shé de  ―  the snake’s poison
      人民國家 / 人民国家  ―  rénmín de guójiā  ―  the People’s Country
      alt. forms: dated
    2. Used to link a noun, an adjective or a phrase to a noun to describe it. that; who
      紅色氣球 / 红色气球  ―  hóngsè de qìqiú  ―  a red balloon
      紀律 / 纪律  ―  tiě de jìlǜ  ―  iron discipline
      北京火車 / 北京火车  ―  qù Běijīng de huǒchē  ―  The train that goes to Beijing
      昨天 / 昨天  ―  zuótiān lái de rén  ―  The people who came yesterday
      /   ―  dehuà  ―  particle put at the end of a conditional clause
      alt. forms: obsolete
    3. Used to form a noun phrase or nominal expression.
      /   ―  Wǒ ài chī là de.  ―  I like hot (or peppery) food.
      菊花 [MSC, trad.]
      菊花 [MSC, simp.]
      Júhuā kāi le, yǒu hóng de, yǒu huáng de. [Pinyin]
      The chrysanthemums are in bloom; some are red and some yellow.
      [MSC, trad.]
      [MSC, simp.]
      Tā shuō tā de, wǒ gàn wǒ de. [Pinyin]
      Let him say what he likes; I'll just get on with my work.
      火車聊天聊天 [MSC, trad.]
      火车聊天聊天 [MSC, simp.]
      Huǒchē shàng kàn shū de kàn shū, liáotiān de liáotiān. [Pinyin]
      On the train some people were reading and some were chatting.
      /   ―  Wǒ yào liǎng ge sān máo de.  ―  I want two of the three-cent ones. (i.e. two items worth three cents each)
      無緣無故什麼 [MSC, trad.]
      无缘无故什么 [MSC, simp.]
      Wúyuánwúgù de nǐ, zháo shénme jí? [Pinyin]
      Why do you get excited for no reason at all?
      這裡只管 [MSC, trad.]
      这里只管 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhèlǐ yòng bù zháo nǐ, nǐ zhǐguǎn shuì nǐ de qù. [Pinyin]
      We don't need you here. Just go to bed.
      alt. forms: obsolete
    4. Used after a verb or between a verb and its object to stress an element of the sentence. It can be used with (shì) to surround the stressed element.
      /   ―  Shuí mǎi de?  ―  Who bought it?
      嗓子怎麼?—— [MSC, trad.]
      嗓子怎么?—— [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ sǎngzǐ zěnme yǎ le? — Chàng de. [Pinyin]
      Why are you so hoarse? —From singing.
      稿子 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Shì wǒ dǎ de gǎozi, tā shàng de sè. [Pinyin]
      It was I who worked up the sketch and he who filled in the colours.
      昨天 / 昨天  ―  Tā shì zuótiān jìn de chéng.  ―  He went to town yesterday. (It's yesterday that he went to town)
      車站 [MSC, trad.]
      车站 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ shì zài chēzhàn dǎ de piào. [Pinyin]
      I bought the ticket at the station. (It's in the station that I bought the ticket)
    5. Used at the end of a declarative sentence for emphasis.
      你們辛苦 [MSC, trad.]
      你们辛苦 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐmen zhè liǎng tiān zhēn gòu xīnkǔ de. [Pinyin]
      You've really been working hard the past few days.
    6. Used to express the idea of “of that kind”.
      針頭線腦 / 针头线脑  ―  zhēntóuxiànnǎo de  ―  things such as needles and threads
    7. (informal) Used to express multiplication or addition. and, by
      屋子十五平方米 [MSC, trad.]
      屋子十五平方米 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè jiān wūzǐ shì wǔ mǐ de sān mǐ, hé shíwǔ píngfāngmǐ. [Pinyin]
      This room is five metres by three, or fifteen square metres.
      一共 [MSC, trad.]
      一共 [MSC, simp.]
      Liǎng ge de sān ge, yīgòng wǔ ge. [Pinyin]
      Two pieces and three pieces—there are five in all.
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of (“possessive particle”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Malaysia
    Singapore
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Chaozhou
    Shantou
    Wu Shanghai
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Usage notesEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Phonetic syllable used to transcribe certain syllables in foreign loanwords.

    PronunciationEdit


    Note: dī - Chinese Mainland pronunciation, used in “的士” and related words.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in transcription.
      的士  ―  shì/shì  ―  taxi
      黎波里  ―  líbōlǐ  ―  Tripoli
    2. Short for 的士 (dīshì, “taxi”).
        ―    ―  to take/hire a taxi

    CompoundsEdit

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    てき
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    Repurposed from the target meaning, probably from Ming- and Qing-era Mandarin use of this character as a possessive or adjectivizing particle,[1] or even earlier in the Song and Yuan eras.[2][3] Probably also influenced in the Meiji period by the English adjective ending -tic (as in spastic, plastic, or characteristic), ultimately deriving from Ancient Greek -τικός (-tikós), used to form adjectives from verbs.[1][2][4][3]

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji -teki)

    1. -ive, -like, -ish, -ic, -ical, -y, kind of, sort of
      Used to form 形容動詞 (keiyō dōshi, na adjectives) from nouns. The resulting term has a 平板型 (heiban-gata, flat type) or type 0 pitch accent pattern.
      中国 (ちゅうごく) (ふん) () ()中国 (ちゅうごく) (てき) (ふん) () ()
      Chūgoku no fun'iki, Chūgoku-teki na fun'iki
      China's atmosphere, a Chinese kind of atmosphere

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    てき
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (tek, literally “mark in a target”, also meaning “bright”).

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji teki)

    1. target
    2. bright, clear
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji teki)

    1. Alternative spelling of : (rare) enemy, opponent
    Alternative formsEdit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana てき, rōmaji teki)

    1. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) he, she, it, that one
    2. (archaic, chiefly Kansai, somewhat derogatory) you
    Alternative formsEdit
    SynonymsEdit
    • (derogatory for “he, she, it”): あいつ (aitsu)
    • (derogatory for “you”): おまえ (omae)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まと
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Possibly originally a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (to, place). Appears to be cognate with homophone (mato, round, adjective, obsolete in modern Japanese).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana まと, rōmaji mato)

    1. a target, a mark, a bullseye
    2. an objective, an object (of doing something)
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いくは
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    • May be derived from rare archaic verb いくう (ikuu, to shoot [an arrow] at something, archaic spelling いくふ).[1]
    The ha element would presumably derive from the verb ending (fu), which has a 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of ha. However, this is unlikely, as verb forms ending in -fu underwent the regular f- and h- > w- shift, which would result in a reading of *ikuwa rather than the correct ikuha.
    • The above phonetic discrepancy suggests that ikuha may instead be a compound of iku + ha. The iku element probably derives from root component いく (iku) meaning “shooting [arrows]”, as found in いくう (ikuu) and also in (ikusa, a battle, original meaning “the shooting of arrows”).[1] The iku element might be related to verb 射る (iru, to shoot an arrow), or obsolete verb 生く (iku, to live; to make something live, to make something go), likely cognate with 行く (iku, to go).
    The ha element is uncertain. It might be (ha, the edge or end of something), from the sense “the end [of the arrow's flight]”.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いくは, rōmaji ikuha)

    1. (archery, rare) an archery target
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ゆくは
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Alteration of ikuha above. Compare the iku <> yuku alteration in the verb 行く (iku, yuku, to go).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ゆくは, rōmaji yukuha)

    1. (archery, rare) an archery target

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (jeok) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đích, đét, đít, điếc, đếch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.