See also:
U+8C37, 谷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C37

[U+8C36]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C38]
U+2F95, ⾕
KANGXI RADICAL VALLEY

[U+2F94]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F96]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 150, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 金人口 (COR), four-corner 80608, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #150, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1189, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36182
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1652, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3902, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8C37

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) — valley () in between two mountains.

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; gorge). Cognate with Tibetan ལྗོངས (ljongs), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung) and Tibetan ལུང་པ (lung pa).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (28)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kuwk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəwk̚/
Li
Rong
/kuk̚/
Wang
Li
/kuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
guk1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qˁok/
English valley

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 4299
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. valley; gorge; ravine
  2. river or stream between two mountains; (in general) stream or river
  3. (figurative) difficult position; predicament
    進退維进退维  ―  jìntuìwéi  ―  to be caught between a rock and a hard place
  4. a surname
      ―  Àilíng  ―  Eileen Gu

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

(Cantonese)

  1. to pressure
  2. to hasten; to boost
  3. to cause to swell by pressuring
  4. to hold back or conceal negative emotions or feelings
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

simp. and trad.

From English group. Doublet of group.

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese, social media, Internet slang) group (Classifier: c)
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 4 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (36)
Final () (8)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yowk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨok̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiok̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/iok̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/juawk̚/
Li
Rong
/iok̚/
Wang
Li
/jĭwok̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wok̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
juk6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 4310
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·loːɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 吐谷渾吐谷浑 (tǔyùhún, “Tuyuhun: name of an ancient nomadic people in northwestern China”) and 谷渾谷浑 (Yùhún, “surname”).

Etymology 5 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter luwk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/luk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/luk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləwk̚/
Li
Rong
/luk̚/
Wang
Li
/luk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
luk6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 4298
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦkroːɡ/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 谷蠡王 (lùlíwáng) and 谷蠡 (lùlí, “title for Xiongnu officials”).

Etymology 6 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“corn; grain; cereal; foxtail millet, the plant or the unhulled grain); etc.”).
(This character is the simplified form of ).
Notes:

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. valley
  2. lowland, plain

Readings edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kuwk, “valley, gorge”):

From Middle Chinese (MC yowk), as in 吐谷渾 (Toyokukon, Tuyuhun):

From Middle Chinese (MC luwk), as in 谷蠡 (Rokuri):

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
たに
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings

谿

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *tani. Possibly cognate with Goguryeo *旦 (*tan, valley).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(たに) (tani

  1. a valley (elongated depression between hills or mountains)
  2. a trough (low portion of a wave cycle)
  3. an intersection of two receding roof slopes
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(たに) (Tani

  1. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
やつ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
谷津

Noun edit

(やつ) (yatsu

  1. a low-lying wetland
  2. a valley
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Possibly a shift from yatsu above.

Noun edit

() (ya

  1. a valley
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
やち
Grade: 2
irregular
Alternative spellings
谷地
野地

Variant shift from yatsu above.

Noun edit

(やち) (yachi

  1. (regional) Same as やつ (yatsu) above

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
やと
Grade: 2
irregular
Alternative spelling
谷戸

Another variant shift from yatsu above.

Noun edit

(やと) (yato

  1. Same as やつ (yatsu) above

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
irregular
Alternative spelling

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

(さこ) (sako

  1. (regional, especially Kansai) a small valley

References edit

  1. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2017) “Origins of the Japanese Language”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics, →DOI
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kuwk). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwok) (Yale: kwok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gol gok))

  1. Hanja form? of (valley).

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC yowk). Recorded as Middle Korean 욕〮 (yók) (Yale: yok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

(eumhun 나라 이름 (nara ireum yok))

  1. (historical) Hanja form? of (Only used in 토욕혼 (吐谷渾, toyokhon, “Tuyuhun: name of an ancient nomadic people in northwestern China”)).

Etymology 3 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC luwk). Recorded as Middle Korean 록〮 (Yale: lwok) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

Hanja edit

(eumhun 벼슬 이름 (byeoseul ireum rok), South Korea 벼슬 이름 (byeoseul ireum nok))

  1. (historical) Hanja form? of / (Only used in 녹려 (谷蠡, nongnyeo, title for Xiongnu officials)).

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: cốc, góc, hốc, dục, thung, lủng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.