See also:
U+8C37, 谷
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C37

[U+8C36]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C38]
U+2F95, ⾕
KANGXI RADICAL VALLEY

[U+2F94]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F96]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 150, +0, 7 strokes, cangjie input 金人口 (COR), four-corner 80608, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #150, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1189, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36182
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1652, character 19
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3902, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8C37

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) — valley () in between two mountains.

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kl(j)u(ŋ/k) (river; gorge). Cognate with Tibetan ལྗོངས (ljongs), Tibetan ཀླུང (klung) and Tibetan ལུང་པ (lung pa).

The sense "group" is from English group.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (28)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəwk̚/
Li
Rong
/kuk̚/
Wang
Li
/kuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
guk1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qˁok/
English valley

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 4299
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. valley; gorge; ravine
  2. mountain stream
  3. (figuratively) difficult position; predicament
  4. (Hong Kong Cantonese) (Facebook, etc.) group
  5. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (36)
Final () (8)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨok̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiok̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/iok̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/juawk̚/
Li
Rong
/iok̚/
Wang
Li
/jĭwok̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wok̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
juk6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 4310
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·loːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 吐谷渾吐谷浑 (tǔyùhún, “Tuyuhun: name of an ancient nomadic people in northwestern China”).

Etymology 3Edit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (37)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/luk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/luk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləwk̚/
Li
Rong
/luk̚/
Wang
Li
/luk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
luk6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 4298
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦkroːɡ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 谷蠡 (“title for Xiongnu officials”).

Etymology 4Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“corn; grain; cereal; salary; etc.”).
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. valley
  2. lowland, plain

ReadingsEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC kuk̚, “valley, gorge”):

From Middle Chinese (MC jɨok̚), as in 吐谷渾 (Toyokukon, Tuyuhun):

From Middle Chinese (MC luk̚), as in 谷蠡 (Rokuri):

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
たに
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Alternative formsEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(たに) (tani

  1. a valley (elongated depression between hills or mountains)
  2. a trough (low portion of a wave cycle)
  3. an intersection of two receding roof slopes
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(たに) (Tani

  1. a surname

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
やつ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Possibly from Ainu [Term?].

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(やつ) (yatsu

  1. a low-lying wetland
  2. a valley
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Possibly a shift from yatsu above.

NounEdit

() (ya

  1. a valley
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
やち
Grade: 2
Irregular

Variant shift from yatsu above.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(やち) (yachi

  1. (regional) Same as やつ (yatsu) above

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
やと
Grade: 2
Irregular

Another variant shift from yatsu above.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(やと) (yato

  1. Same as やつ (yatsu) above

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
Irregular

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(さこ) (sako

  1. (regional, especially Kansai) a small valley

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kuk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: kwok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gol gok))

  1. Hanja form? of (valley).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC jɨok̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 욕〮 (Yale: yok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 나라 이름 (nara ireum yok))

  1. (historical) Hanja form? of (Only used in 토욕혼 (吐谷渾, toyokhon, “Tuyuhun: name of an ancient nomadic people in northwestern China”)).

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC luk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 록〮 (Yale: lwok) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 벼슬 이름 (byeoseul ireum rok), South Korea 벼슬 이름 (byeoseul ireum nok))

  1. (historical) Hanja form? of / (Only used in 녹려 (谷蠡, nongnyeo, title for Xiongnu officials)).

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: cốc, góc, hốc, dục

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.