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U+548C, 和
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-548C

[U+548B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+548D]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30 +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Small seal script
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰoːl, *kʰoːls
*kʰoːl
*kʰoːl
*kʰoːl
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl, *ɡoːls
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl, *ɡoːls
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːl
*ɡoːls

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːl, *ɡoːls): phonetic  (OC *ɡoːl) + semantic  (mouth) – harmony.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hô/hô͘ - literary;
  • hê/hêr/hôe - vernacular.
Note:
  • hua5 - literary;
  • huê5 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwa/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑ/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huó
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwa ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤoj/
English harmonious

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4932
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːl/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. peaceful; harmonious
    •   ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
  2. gentle; kind
  3. warm; temperate
  4. sum; total
    •   ―  Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.  ―  The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
  5. to make peace; to become reconciled
  6. (chess) to tie
  7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
  8. Japanese
    •   ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
  9. A surname​. He

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. and
      ―    ―  me and you
  2. with
See alsoEdit
Dialectal synonyms of (“and”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou 同埋
Hong Kong 同埋
Taishan 同埋
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Penang
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

Pronunciation 3Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦuɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwaH/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑH/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ˤoj-s/
English tune (instruments); respond in singing

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4937
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːls/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to make sounds in concert with; to echo
      ―    ―  to second, to echo
      ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
    /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
      ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 4Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to stir; to mix
    /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    /   ―  huò miàn  ―  to knead dough
      ―  hùnhuò  ―  mixture, amalgame
      ―  róuhuò/hé  ―  to knead

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 5Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
      ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 6Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. warm
      ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
    /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji wa)

  1. peace, harmony
  2. (arithmetic) sum

See alsoEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji Wa)

  1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
     () () () (てん)
    Wa-Ro jiten
    Japanese-Russian dictionary
     () (しょく)
    washoku
    Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
     () (しつ)
    washitsu
    a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors
Usage notesEdit

Often used as a prefix to form compounds, as in the usage examples above.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
やまと
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana やまと, rōmaji Yamato)

  1. 大和: Japan, Japanese

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 3
Irregular

Used as ateji in various names.

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana のどか, rōmaji Nodoka)

  1. A male or female given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(hwa) (hangeul , revised hwa, McCune-Reischauer hwa, Yale hwa)

  1. harmony, peace
  2. get together

NounEdit

(hwa) (hangeul )

  1. A free reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times

compoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hoà, hoạ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999