See also: , , and
U+548C, 和
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-548C

[U+548B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+548D]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːl, *ɡoːls): phonetic (OC *ɡoːl) + semantic (mouth) – harmony.

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “see talk”)

“and; with”
Zhao (2018) suggests that hàn and hài may ultimately derive from the contractions of 還有还有 (háiyǒu) in colloquial speech.
“Japanese”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (やまと) (Yamato).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hô/hô͘ - literary;
  • hê/hêr/hôe - vernacular.
Note:
  • hua5 - literary;
  • huê5 - vernacular (used in 和尚).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huó
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁoj/
    English harmonious

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4932
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. peaceful; harmonious
      •   ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
    2. gentle; kind
    3. warm; temperate
    4. sum; total
      •   ―  Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.  ―  The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
    5. to make peace; to become reconciled
    6. (chess) to tie
    7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
    8. Japanese
      •   ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
    9. A surname​. He

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Thai: ฮั้ว (húua)

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. and
        ―    ―  me and you
    2. with
    SynonymsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁoj-s/
    English tune (instruments); respond in singing

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4937
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to make sounds in concert with; to echo
        ―    ―  to second, to echo
        ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
      /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
        ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 4Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to mix with water to make something stick together; to knead
      /   ―  huómiàn  ―  to knead dough

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 5Edit


    Note: gwo3 - variant pronunciation for the classifier.
    Note: classifier.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to mix (usually substances in powder or grain form)
      /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    2. to add water to make something less thick
    3. Classifier for the number of rinses when washing clothes.
    4. Classifier for the number of times a dose of traditional Chinese medicine is boiled.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 6Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to have a winning hand (at mahjong etc)
        ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 7Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. warm
        ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
      /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

    The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character () (Wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和(やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (wa

    1. peace, harmony, tranquillity, serenity.
    2. (arithmetic) sum
      Antonym: (sa) (difference)

    See alsoEdit

    AffixEdit

    () (wa

    1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
      ()()()(てん)
      Wa-Ro jiten
      Japanese-Russian dictionary
      ()(しょく)
      washoku
      Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
      ()(しつ)
      washitsu
      a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    やまと
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    Appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character () (Wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和(やまと) (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of Yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the kan'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

    Proper nounEdit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    大和やまと
    [proper noun] a town in the Shikinoshimo district in the Yamato Province of Japan, generally equivalent to modern Tenri area
    [proper noun] A city in Kanagawa Prefecture
    [proper noun] one of the old provinces that made up Japan, generally equivalent to modern Nara prefecture
    [proper noun] the country of Japan
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    のど
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    DefinitionsEdit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    のどS
    [adjective] (archaic) tranquil; calm; quiet; peaceful
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    のどか
    Grade: 3
    Irregular

    Used as ateji in various names.

    Proper nounEdit

    (のどか) (Nodoka

    1. A unisex given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuɑ).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 화할 (hwahal hwa))

    1. Hanja form? of (harmony; peace).
    2. Hanja form? of (a free-reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hoà, hoạ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999