See also: , , and
U+548C, 和
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-548C

[U+548B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+548D]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹木口 (HDR), four-corner 26900, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 185, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3490
  • Dae Jaweon: page 404, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 602, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+548C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡoːl, *ɡoːls): phonetic (OC *ɡoːl) + semantic (mouth) – harmony.

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “see talk”)

“and; with”
Zhao (2018) suggests that hàn and hài may ultimately derive from the contractions of 還有还有 (háiyǒu) in colloquial speech.
“Japanese”
Orthographic borrowing from Japanese (やまと) (Yamato).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hô/hô͘ - literary;
  • hê/hêr/hôe - vernacular.
Note:
  • hua5 - literary;
  • huê5 - vernacular (used in 和尚).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huó
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wo4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁoj/
    English harmonious

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4932
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. peaceful; harmonious
        ―  píng  ―  peace, peaceful
    2. gentle; kind
    3. warm; temperate
    4. sum; total
        ―  Wǔ jiā sì de shì jiǔ.  ―  The sum of 5 and 4 is 9.
    5. to make peace; to become reconciled
    6. (chess) to tie
    7. (music) An ancient mouth organ similar to the sheng, but smaller; no longer used.
    8. Japanese
        ―    ―  kimono, Japanese traditional clothing
    9. A surname​. He

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Thai: ฮั้ว (húua)

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. and
        ―    ―  me and you
      麵包雞蛋 [MSC, trad.]
      面包鸡蛋 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ xiǎng mǎi xiē ròu, yú, miànbāo jīdàn. [Pinyin]
      I want to buy some meat, fish, bread, and eggs.
    2. with
      流浪街頭孩子朋友 [MSC, trad.]
      流浪街头孩子朋友 [MSC, simp.]
      liúlàng jiētóu de háizǐ jiāo shàng le péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
      He has made friends with the kids on the street.
      其他國家採取一致行動 [MSC, trad.]
      其他国家采取一致行动 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā xiǎng qítā guójiā cǎiqǔ yīzhì xíngdòng. [Pinyin]
      He wants to act in concert with other nations.
      比起 [MSC, trad.]
      比起 [MSC, simp.]
      nǐ de chē bǐqǐ lái, wǒ de chē hěn xiǎo. [Pinyin]
      Compared with yours, my car is small.
      如果譯文原文比較一下準確地方 [MSC, trad.]
      如果译文原文比较一下准确地方 [MSC, simp.]
      Rúguǒ nǐ bǎ yìwén yuánwén bǐjiào yīxià, nǐ jiù huì zhǎo dào bù zhǔnquè de dìfang. [Pinyin]
      If you compare the translation with the original, you will find the inaccuracy.
      意思日語ダメ類似 [MSC, trad.]
      意思日语ダメ类似 [MSC, simp.]
      Yìsī rìyǔ de “dame” lèisì. [Pinyin]
      The meaning is similar to the Japanese dame.
    SynonymsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    huò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wo6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢ]ˁoj-s/
    English tune (instruments); respond in singing

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4937
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡoːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to make sounds in concert with; to echo
        ―    ―  to second, to echo
        ―  chàng  ―  antiphon, sung reply
      /   ―  yìng  ―  to echo, to correspond
        ―  chóu  ―  to respond to a poem with a poem

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 4Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to mix with water to make something stick together; to knead
      /   ―  huómiàn  ―  to knead dough

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 5Edit


    Note: gwo3 - variant pronunciation for the classifier.
    Note: classifier.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to mix (usually substances in powder or grain form)
      /   ―  jiǎohuo  ―  to stir, to mix
    2. to add water to make something less thick
    3. Classifier for the number of rinses when washing clothes.
    4. Classifier for the number of times a dose of traditional Chinese medicine is boiled.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 6Edit

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms Cantonese


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (mahjong) to have a winning hand
        ―  pái  ―  to win in mahjong
    Usage notesEdit
    • When playing mahjong, a player may say this word as a call when winning from another player's discard.

    CompoundsEdit

    SynonymsEdit

    • (Cantonese) 食糊
    • (Taiwanese Hokkien) (kàu)

    See alsoEdit

    Pronunciation 7Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. warm
        ―  nuǎnhuo  ―  warm
      /   ―  wēnhuo  ―  warm, lukewarm

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (hwa, harmonious).

    The “Japan” sense appears during the reign of Empress Genmei (707–715), as this character was chosen as a homophone with a more favorable meaning to replace the previous character (Wa) then in use as the kanji name for Japan[1] (see the etymology at 大和 (Yamato) for more details). The “Japan” sense was usually read with a kun'yomi of yamato, until some time in the Muromachi period, when the go'on reading of Wa became more common.[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (wa

    1. peace, harmony, tranquillity, serenity.
    2. (arithmetic) sum
      Antonym: (difference) (sa)

    See alsoEdit

    AffixEdit

    () (wa

    1. Japan, Japanese, Nippo-
      ()()()(てん)
      Wa-Ro jiten
      Japanese-Russian dictionary
      ()(しょく)
      washoku
      Japanese-style food, Japanese cuisine
      ()(しつ)
      washitsu
      a Japanese-style room with tatami flooring and usually sliding doors

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    やまと
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    See Etymology 1.

    In modern Japanese, the Yamato reading is more commonly spelled 大和.

    Proper nounEdit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    大和やまと
    [proper noun] a town in the Shikinoshimo district in the Yamato Province of Japan, generally equivalent to modern Tenri area
    [proper noun] A city in Kanagawa Prefecture
    [proper noun] one of the old provinces that made up Japan, generally equivalent to modern Nara prefecture
    [proper noun] the country of Japan
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    のど
    Grade: 3
    kun’yomi

    DefinitionsEdit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    のどS
    [adjective] (archaic) tranquil; calm; quiet; peaceful
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    のどか
    Grade: 3
    Irregular

    Used as ateji in various names.

    Proper nounEdit

    (のどか) (Nodoka

    1. A unisex given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɦuɑ).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 화할 (hwahal hwa))

    1. Hanja form? of (harmony; peace).
    2. Hanja form? of (a free-reed mouth organ with 13 bamboo pipes used in ancient times).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Hán tựEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: hòa/hoà[1], hồ[2]
    : Nôm readings: họa/hoạ[3], huề[3], hùa[4]

    1. Hán tự form of hoà (peace, harmony).
    2. Hán tự form of hoà; hoạ; hùa (to mix or dissolve in water; to harmonize; to follow suit).
    3. Hán tự form of hoà, huề (to draw, to tie, to make peace).

    ReferencesEdit