See also: , , and
U+9B5A, 魚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9B5A

[U+9B59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9B5B]
U+2FC2, ⿂
KANGXI RADICAL FISH

[U+2FC1]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FC3]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 195, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓田火 (NWF), four-corner 27336, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #195, .

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1465, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45956
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1998, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4674, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9B5A

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𤉯
𤋳
𩵋
𮫬
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) – a fish.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋja. Cognate with (OC *ŋa, “to fish”).

Pronunciation edit


Note: ngui3-4* - standalone word for "fish".
Note:
  • hî/hû/hîr - vernacular;
  • gû/gîr/gî - literary.
Note:
  • he5 - Chaozhou, Shantou, Chenghai, Jieyang;
  • hu5 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.
  • (Leizhou)
    • Leizhou Pinyin: hu5 / yi5
    • Sinological IPA: /hu²²/, /ʑi²²/
Note:
  • hu5 - vernacular;
  • yi5 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • (Shanghainese) 6ng, (Suzhounese) 2ng - colloquial;
    • (Shanghainese) 6yu, (Suzhounese) 2yu - literary.
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /y³⁵/
    Harbin /y²⁴/
    Tianjin /y⁴⁵/
    Jinan /y⁴²/
    Qingdao /y⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /y⁴²/
    Xi'an /y²⁴/
    Xining /y²⁴/
    Yinchuan /y⁵³/
    Lanzhou /y⁵³/
    Ürümqi /y⁵¹/
    Wuhan /y²¹³/
    Chengdu /y³¹/
    Guiyang /i²¹/
    Kunming /i³¹/
    Nanjing /y²⁴/
    Hefei /zz̩ʷ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /y¹¹/
    Pingyao /ȵy¹³/
    Hohhot /y³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋ̍²³/
    /ɦy²³/
    Suzhou /ɦy¹³/
    /ŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦz̩ʷ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ŋøy³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ny⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵy⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /y¹³/
    Xiangtan /y¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵie⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /n̩¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋ̍¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jy²¹/
    Nanning /y²¹/
    Hong Kong /jy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gu³⁵/
    /hi³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋy⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋy³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hɯ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zi³¹/
    /hu³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ngjo
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r.ŋ]a/
    English fish (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 15939
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋa/

    Definitions edit

    1. fish (Classifier: m c;  m h mn)
    2. fish (as a food)
    3. () (telegraphy) the sixth day of a month
    4. Alternative form of ()
    5. Alternative form of (OC *ŋaː).
    6. a surname

    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ぎょ) (gyo)
    • Korean: 어(魚) (eo)
    • Vietnamese: ngư ()

    References edit

    Japanese edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    うお
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
     
    (uo): a fish

    /uwo//uo/

    From Old Japanese,[1] from Proto-Japonic *uwo.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (うお) (uoうを (wo)?

    1. a fish
    Derived terms edit
    Idioms edit
    Proverbs edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    いお
    Grade: 2
    irregular

    /uwo//iwo//io/

    Alteration of older uo, appearing from roughly the Heian period. Alternatively this might be the usage of an apophonic form *iwo; compare Proto-Ryukyuan *iwo.

    Still used today in some dialects.[1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (いお) (ioいを (iwo)?

    1. (archaic or dialectal, Kagoshima) a fish
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term
    さかな
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
     
    (sakana): a fish used as a side dish

    Cognate with (sakana, side dish of meat or vegetables usually served with alcoholic beverages), itself a compound of Old Japanese-derived elements (saka, bound apophonic form of sake2, “alcoholic beverage, especially sake) +‎ , , (na, generic term for a side dish, especially vegetables, fish, or other meat).[1]

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (さかな) (sakana

    1. a fish, especially when used as food
      (にわ)()()しい(さかな)()べた。
      Niwa de oishii sakana o tabeta.
      I ate a delicious fish in the garden.
      • 2000 January 27, “レインボー・フィッシュ [Rainbow Fish]”, in Vol.7, Konami:
        ()にも(めずら)しい(なな)(いろ)(さかな)(つか)まえるのはかなり(むずか)しい。
        Yonimo mezurashii nanairo no sakana. Tsukamaeru no wa kanari muzukashii.
        An extremely rare seven-colored fish. It is quite difficult to catch.
      • 2011 May 14, “(はん)(ぎょ)(じゅう)・フィッシャービースト”, in Beginner's Edition 1, Konami:
        (りく)では(けもの)のように、(うみ)では(さかな)のように()(ばや)(こう)(げき)する。
        Riku de wa kemono no yō ni, umi de wa sakana no yō ni subayaku kōgeki suru.
        Like a beast on land, like a fish in the sea, he attacks swiftly.
    2. a side dish, specifically referring to fish
      Synonym: お菜 (okazu)
    Usage notes edit

    This is now the most common general word for fish in modern standard Japanese.

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぎょ
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC ngjo).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ぎょ) (gyo

    1. a fish
    2. Short for 魚鱗 (gyorin): fish scales

    Affix edit

    (ぎょ) (gyo

    1. fish
    2. fishlike
    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ngjo).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅥᆼ (Yale: ngè)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 고기〮 (Yale: kwòkí) (Yale: è)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 물고기 (mulgogi eo))

    1. Hanja form? of (fish). [affix]

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Okinawan edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    /ʔiu//ʔiːu//ʔiju/

    Shift from iu below.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (いゆ) (iyu

    1. a fish
      (いゆ)(とぅ)いが()ちゅん。
      Iyu tuiga ichun.
      I will go catch a fish.
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *iwo, from Proto-Japonic *iwo, apophonic form of *uwo. Cognate with Old Japanese (uwo).

    Compare modern dialectal mainland Japanese (io), first appearing in print and becoming common from the Heian period, but likely extant earlier.

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (いう) (iu

    1. a fish

    References edit

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Noun edit

    (uwo) (kana うを)

    1. a fish
    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (uo, io)

    Etymology 2 edit

    Cognate with (na, side dish),[1][2][3] by extension that can refer to any kind of meat.

    Noun edit

    (na) (kana )

    1. a fish, especially when used as food
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū, (book 5, poem 869, first variant):
        , text here
        多良志比賣可尾能美許等能都良須等美多多志世利斯 伊志遠多礼美吉
        tarasi pi1me1 kami2 no2 mi-ko2to2 no2 na turasu to2 mi1-tatasi serisi isi wo tare mi1ki1
        Who saw the rock that rose up against us as we tried to catch the fish [or “catching sweetfishes”] belonging to the empress?
    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (sakana)

    References edit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: ngư ((ngữ)()(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: ngơ[1][2][3][4], ngư[1][2][3], ngớ[1][4], ngừ[3][4]

    1. chữ Hán form of ngư (fish).

    References edit

    Yonaguni edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (いゆ) (iyu

    1. fish

    Derived terms edit

    Yoron edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Noun edit

    (っゆー) (yyū

    1. fish