-겠-

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U+ACA0, 겠
HANGUL SYLLABLE GESS
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[U+AC9F]
Hangul Syllables
[U+ACA1]

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Contraction of older and synonymous (-ge ha-yeot-), ᄒᆞ (Yale: -key hoy-es-) in historical spelling.[1][2][3] ᄒᆞ (Yale: -key hoy-es-) has been used with future meaning since the late sixteenth century.[1]

In Modern Korean, (-ge ha-yeot-) most literally means "caused [one] to [VERB]", e.g. (meok-ge ha-yeot-da, [I] made [him] eat). Hence, there are multiple theories with regards to the semantics. Some believe that the verb 하다 (hada) in this context was synonymous to 되다 (doeda), and hence that the construction originally had the same meaning as modern (-ge doe-eot-), e.g. (meok-ge doe-eot-da, [he] ended up eating).[2] Others believe that the suffix developed from a more reflexive use of the causative, equivalent to modern 도록 (-dorok ha-yeot-), e.g. 도록 (meok-dorok ha-yeot-da, [he] decided to eat).[1][4]

Increasingly displaced older future-like 으리 (-euri-).

SuffixEdit

(-get-)

  1. A general future speculative suffix; it attaches directly to the stem, including the honorific 으시 (-eusi-), and precedes another verbal suffix.
    1. (mainly used with 1st person or in quotative sentences) will, intend: a suffix indicating that the subject intends to do the action in the future with their own efforts, thus showing their will, determination.
      다시 담배 피우지 !
      Dasi-neun dambae-reul piuji anketda!
      I won't smoke again!
      철수 오늘 김밥 대요.
      Cheolsu-ga oneul gimbab-eul meokgetdaeyo.
      Cheolsu said he would eat kimbap today.
    2. will, may: A suffix denoting guess or assumption of varied possibility.
      내일 .
      Naeil bi-ga ogen-ne-yo.
      Tomorrow it will probably rain.
      어제 모스크바에서 내렸?
      Eoje Moseukeuba-eseo-do nun-i naeryeotget-ji-yo?
      It probably snowed in Moscow too yesterday, right?
    3. will, would: A suffix indicating an indirect polite proposal with some degree of future supposition.
      어요?
      Je-ga mar-eul jom hae-do doegesseoyo?
      Would it be okay if I said something?
Usage notesEdit

(-get-) and 을 것이다 (-eul geosida) both convey the subject's desire or the speaker's hypothesis, and often have (by extension) a future sense. However, (-get-) conveys a hypothesis based on the speaker's subjective beliefs or sentiments, or based only on information perceived at the present moment. Meanwhile, 을 것이다 (-eul geosida) conveys a hypothesis based on information exterior to the speaker or beyond that perceived at the present moment.

Thus 고기 맛있 (gogi-ga masit-get-da) means that the speaker feels that the meat will taste good based on what it looks like at the moment of speaking, whereas 고기 맛있을 거야 (gogi-ga masisseul geoya) means that the speaker has some exterior justification for believing that the meat will taste good—having previously tasted it, for instance.

The contrast extends to statements about the subject's desire. Thus 미국으로 습니다 (jeo-neun migug-euro ga-get-seumnida) emphasizes the speaker's subjective desire to go to America, while 미국으로 것입니다 (jeo-neun migug-euro gal geosimnida) implies that the speaker has not only the desire to go to America, but also some objective reason for believing that they will be able to do so.

  • (dialectal differences)

In southern dialects such as Jeolla and Gyeongsang, this suffix can only be used for prediction. To express one's will or desire, use 을라 (-eulla-) in Jeolla and northern Gyeongsang, and 을끼다 (-eulkkida) in southern Gyeongsang. Note that 을끼다 (-eulkkida) is the dialectal pronunciation of 을 것이다 (-eul geosida).

Alternative formsEdit
  • 게엿 (-geyeot-), 게얏 (-geyat-)Early Modern
  • (-gaet-)Hamgyong
  • (-geot-)Jeolla, Chungcheong, southern Gyeongsang
  • (-gat-)parts of Gyeonggi, Gangwon
  • (-gat-)Hwanghae, Pyong'an, Yukjin

See alsoEdit

  • (-eul, irrealis adnominal suffix)

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Korean (Yale: -kes-), from (Yale: -ke-, perfective or confirmative marker) + (Yale: -s-, exclamatory marker).[2] It has since merged with the suffix above phonologically.

SuffixEdit

(-get-)

  1. Used to strongly confirm that something is the case; nowadays, it is typically followed by another clause which draws a conclusion based on that fact.
    들어가기 싫고 날씨 , 카페 볼까?
    Jib-e deureo-gagi-neun silko nalssi-do jo-ket-da, kape-na ga-bolkka?
    I don't want to go back home, and the weather is really nice; should I just go to a café?
Usage notesEdit
  • The subject of the verb is usually followed by the particle (-do, even, too).
  • Always followed by (-da, declarative suffix), even though it is not sentence-final.
Alternative formsEdit
  • (-geot-)Early Modern, southern dialectal

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 고광모 (2002), “'겠'의 형성 과정과 그 의미의 발달 [The formation of -keyss- and its semantic development]”, in Gugeohak, volume 39, pages 27—47
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 이병기 (2006), “'겟'의 문법화와 확정성 [The grammaticalization of -keys- and determinacy]”, in Jindan hakbo, volume 102, pages 163—179
  3. ^ 이현희 (2007), “19세기 초기부터 20세기 초기까지의 한국어는 어떤 모습이었나—주로 문법사적 기술을 중심으로— [What did Korean look like from the early 19th century to the early 20th century? From a perspective of grammatical history]”, in Urimalgeul, volume 41, pages 1—40
  4. ^ 고광모 (2017), “'겠'의 발달에 대한 재론—'게 하엿'을 '게 되엿'으로 해석하는 견해들에 대한 비판— [The development of the prefinal ending -keyss- in Korean revisited: arguments against the views interpreting -key ho-yes as -key twoy-yes-]”, in Eoneohak, volume 79, pages 53—72