See also:

JejuEdit

Etymology 1Edit

SuffixEdit

(-ge)

  1. A propositive verb-final suffix in the "intimate" ᄒᆞ여체 (hawyeoche) speech level used between friends, by superiors to inferiors, etc.
    • c. 1980, 안사인 (reciting priest), “Chasa bon-puri”, in 제주도 무가 [Shamanic songs of Jeju Island] (한국고전문학전집 (Anthology of Classical Korean Literature)), Korea University Press, published 1996:
      "짐치원님아, 짐치원님아, 강님이 ᄒᆞᄁᆞᆷ만 빌립서. 저승 강 부리당 보내리다."
      "아니 됍네다."
      "계건 옵서. 우리 반착썩 갈라앗 [] 몸천을 앗으쿠가? 혼정을 앗으쿠가?"
      Jim Chi wonnim-a, Jim Chi wonnim-a, Gangnimi hawkkawm-man billipseo. Jeoseung gang buridang bonaerida."
      "Ani dwaemneda."
      "Gyegeon opseo. Uri banchaksseok galla-atge [] Momcheon-eul aseukuga? Honjeong-eul aseukuga?"
      (Yama said,) "Magistrate Kim Chi, Magistrate Kim Chi, allow me to borrow Gangnim for a while. I will go to the world of the dead, make him do work, and then send him back."
      "No."
      "Then let's split him in half [] Will you take his body? Or will you take his soul?"
    • 2009, 제주 문화 예술 재단, 개정 증보 제주어 사전, 제주 특별 자치도, →ISBN, page 55:
      아무개 이번 그네 장원ᄒᆞ거들랑 우리 멀리 어디 조곰 그놈 죽여.
      Gim amugae ibeon-do o-ra-geune jang'wonhaw-geodeullang uri-ga meolli eodi jogom sum-eot-da geunom sim-eo nwa-seo jugyeo-bulge.
      If Kim comes and wins again this time, let's hide far away and catch and kill him.
    • 2020, Changyong Yang; Sejung Yang; William O'Grady, Jejueo: the language of Korea’s Jeju Island, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai‘i Press, DOI:https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvwvr2qt, →ISBN, JSTOR j.ctvwvr2qt, page 206:
      ᄉᆞ답ᄒᆞ!
      Sawdaphaw-ge!
      Let’s do the laundry!
    • 2020, Changyong Yang; Sejung Yang; William O'Grady, Jejueo: the language of Korea’s Jeju Island, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai‘i Press, DOI:https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvwvr2qt, →ISBN, JSTOR j.ctvwvr2qt, page 206:
      (이)게!
      Meog-eot(-i)ge!
      Let’s get finished eating!
    !Meok-ge!Let's eat!
    가ᇝ이게!Gams-ige!Let's get going!
Usage notesEdit

This ending can also be added to the endings (-eot) and 어ᇝ (-eom) and their allomorphs, in which they give a meaning of "Let's get finished..." and "Let's start/get ...ing", respectively. [1]

Alternative formsEdit
  • 으게 (-euge) (sometimes used after stems that end in consonants, excluding (meok-) in 먹다 (meokda, to eat))
  • 이게 (-ige) (sometimes used after stems that end in (s), (j), or (ch))
  • 우게 (-uge) (sometimes used after stems that end in the labial consonants (b) or (m))

Etymology 2Edit

SuffixEdit

(-ge)

  1. An evidential verb-final suffix in the "intimate" ᄒᆞ여체 (hawyeoche) speech level that marks an event of which the speaker has knowledge, either from inference or observation. Only used with the (-eon) and (-eun) suffixes and their allomorphs. [2]
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Changyong Yang; Sejung Yang; William O'Grady (2020) Jejueo: the language of Korea’s Jeju Island, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai‘i Press, DOI:https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvwvr2qt, →ISBN, JSTOR j.ctvwvr2qt, pages 205-206
  2. ^ Changyong Yang; Sejung Yang; William O'Grady (2020) Jejueo: the language of Korea’s Jeju Island, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai‘i Press, DOI:https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvwvr2qt, →ISBN, JSTOR j.ctvwvr2qt, pages 187-190

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Korean 게〮 (Yale: -kéy). Old Korean has adverb-deriving (*-ke), although uncommon.[1] In Middle Korean, it coexisted with (Yale: -i) and (Yale: -wo), but it has since displaced both to become by far the most productive adverbial suffix in Korean.

SuffixEdit

(-ge)

  1. -ly; a suffix attached to the stems of verbs and adjectives to derive adverbs.
    슬프 울다seulpeu-ge uldato weep sadly
    행복하 살고 있다.Haengbok-ha-ge salgo itda.He is living happily.
    하늘 물들.Haneur-i buk-ge mul-deur-eot-da.The sky was colored red.
  2. so that
    마시 .Mul masi-ge keop jom.A cup please, so I can have water.
    맞춘 배달되어 왔다.
    Mom-e kkok mat-ge matchun os-i baedaldoeeo watda.
    The clothes which were made to fit him perfectly were delivered.
Usage notesEdit

(common constructions)

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

First attested in the nineteenth century. Formally the same suffix as Etymology 1. It stems from a practice in which the mood-marking main verb was left implicit in colloquial conversation, causing the originally adverbalized stem to develop into the main stem of the clause.[2][3]

SuffixEdit

(-ge)

  1. In the intimate style:
    1. are you going to...; used to ask about the addressee's intentions, often with a nuance of slight surprise.
      ?Mwo ha-ge?What are you going to do?
      지금 ? 너무 이르지 않아?
      Jigeum ga-ge? Neomu ireuji ana?
      Are you going to leave right now? Isn't it too early?
    2. Used sarcastically to deny the possibility of something being true by positing an equally absurd situation.
      하면 ?
      Mal-man ha-myeon da doe-ge?
      Do you think you can solve every problem just by talking?
      (literally, “If you just spoke, would everything be done?”)
      검사 판사?
      Ne-ga geomsa-myeon nan pansa-ge?
      If you're a prosecutor, then I'm a judge!
    3. Used to invite someone to guess.
      누구?Nugu-ge?Guess who?
  2. In the familiar style, the principal imperative suffix.
    말하. 그날 자네 하고 있었나?
    Mal-ha-ge. Geunal jane-neun mwol hago isseonna?
    Please tell me. What were you doing that day?

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle Korean (Yale: -kay).

SuffixEdit

(-ge)

  1. Alternative form of (-gae, [agentive suffix])
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

ParticleEdit

(-ge)

  1. (literary) Short for 에게 (-ege, to).
Usage notesEdit
  • Used only for pronouns.
  • In contemporary language, used only in 내게 (nae-ge, to me), 제게 (je-ge, to me (humble)), 네게 (ne-ge, to you).

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 장윤희 (2006), “고대국어의 파생 접미사 연구 [A study of derivational suffixes in Old Korean]”, in Gugeohak, volume 47, pages 91—144
  2. ^ 장윤희 (2012), “국어 종결어미의 통시적 변화와 쟁점 [A general survey of diachronic change of Korean sentence-terminating endings]”, in Gugeosa yeon'gu, volume 14, pages 63—99
  3. ^ 이소은 (2016) 19세기 말~20세기 초 한국어에 나타난 종결어미화 연구 [A study of the development of sentence-final suffixes in Korean in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries], University of Seoul (PhD)