See also:

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó), probably from Old Korean , although the phonology is potentially problematic.[1] While Old Korean corresponds exactly to Middle Korean 고〮 (Yale: -kwó) in terms of grammar, the Middle Chinese pronunciation is (MC kʰiᴇnX, kʰiᴇnH), which does not sound like 고〮 (Yale: -kwó).

In any case, Old Korean (*-kwo) is also, albeit rarely, attested as a connective suffix;[1] either and are different orthographies of the same suffix (more likely), or the latter subsumed the role of the former. In Middle Korean Idu script, always denotes 고〮 (Yale: -kwó).

SuffixEdit

(-go)

  1. and then, after...; marks successive action.
    공부하 아야지.Gongbu-hago nor-ayaji.You should play after studying.
    갈게.Bab-eul meokgo galge-yo.I'll go after eating.
  2. and; connects two clauses together.
    Synonym: (formal) 으며 (-eumyeo)
    운동 한다.Undong-do hago il-do handa.[He] exercises, and does work too.
    도착했 .Na-neun dochakhaetgo gyae-ga an on geo-ya.I've arrived; it's him who hasn't come.
  3. Used for the main verb to join it to certain auxiliaries.
    있다hago itdato be doing
    누가 자전거를 타 있습니까?nuga jajeon'georeul tago itseumnikka?Who is riding a bicycle?
    hago na-ninow that it's been done
    들다hago deuldato do fiercely
    hago bo-ninow that I've done it, [I feel...]
    .Hago mar-at-da.I ended up doing it.
  4. In the intimate style, used to ask confirmatory questions; by extension, can have nuances of denial or sarcasm.
    아침 ?Achim-eun meog-eot-go?So, did you have breakfast?
    처럼 바본 ?Nae-ga neo-cheoreom babon jul al-go?Did you think I was an idiot like you?
  5. In the intimate style, used in polite requests.
    그쪽 어서 .Geujjok bun-deul eoseo o-si-go-yo.Folks over there, please come quickly.
  6. In the intimate style, used to present additional information, typically with the nominal particle (-do, also, too).
    날씨 되게 좋던데. — , 그래? — . 사람 .
    Nalssi doege joteonde. - A, geurae? - Eo. Bakk-e saram-do eop-go.
    The weather was really nice, I saw. — Oh, really? — Yeah. No people outside, too.
Usage notesEdit
  • (and then): Compare (-eo) and 어서 (-eoseo), which have an additional nuance that the first action is impacting or enabling the second.
Alternative formsEdit
  • (-gu)dialectal or endearing slang
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Contracted from 하고 (hago, that, used to quote speech, literally [one] said, and...), hence formally identical to the connective suffix above. First attested widely in the Ildong Jang'yu-ga (日東壯遊歌 / 일동장유가), 1763, and other mid-eighteenth-century works.[2][3]

ParticleEdit

(-go)

  1. that; quotative particle marking indirect quotes. Attaches to mood-marking verb-final suffixes of the "plain style".
    자기 그랬다.Jagi-ga meog-eot-da-go geuraetda.He said that he ate it.
    어디 물었다.Nae-ga eodi ga-nya-go mureotda.He asked where I was going.
    거기 말했다.Geogi-ro ga-ja-go malhaetda.He said that we should go there.
    신하에게 자결하 명령했다.
    Wang-eun sinha-ege jagyeolha-ra-go myeongnyeong-haetda.
    The king commanded the minister to take his own life.
  2. In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to request confirmation of what the speaker has just heard; by extension, can express surprise about what they have just heard.
    ?Nae-ga meog-eot-da-go?Did you say I ate it?
    ?Na-do gan-nya-go?Did you ask if I went too?
    거기 ?Geogi-ro ga-ja-go-yo?Did you say we should go there?
    어디 ?Eodi ga-ra-go-yo?Where did you say I should go?
  3. In the intimate style, a particle attached to verbs to emphasize that the speaker is repeating something they have just said; by extension, can be used to express emphasis or annoyance even if one is not actually repeating something.
    Synonym: 으니까 (-eunikka)
    메달 .Nae-ga medar-eul ttat-da-go.I said, it was me who won the medal.
    .Neo-do jo-an-nya-go.I asked, did you like it too?
    얼른 .Eolleun ga-ja-go.I said, let's leave as soon as possible.
    빨리 나가.Ppalli naga-ra-go-yo.I said, leave quickly.
  4. Used with the declarative in certain constructions as 다고 (-dago); see there for more.
Usage notesEdit
  • (-go) neutralizes speech level and formality distinctions, and other nuances of the mood-marking suffixes, to the basic suffixes of the "plain style": (-da), (-ra), (-nya), 으라 (-eura), and (-ja).
Hence declarative sentences are quoted as 다고 (-dago) or 라고 (-rago), interrogative sentences as 냐고 (-nyago), imperative sentences as 으라고 (-eurago), and hortative sentences as 자고 (-jago), regardless of speech level.
가셨습니다. (formal polite style)Gasyeotseumnida.He went.
가셨 합니다.Gasyeotda-go hamnida.They say that he went.
With the imperative:
이거 . (intimate style)Igeo meogeo.Eat this.
이거 먹으라 그랬어.Igeo meogeura-go geuraesseo.He told me to eat this.
  • (-go) can be freely omitted.
  • 이라고 (-irago) is used for direct quotes.
Alternative formsEdit
  • (-gu)dialectal or endearing slang
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Shortened from Middle Korean 고〮져〮 (Yale: -kwócyé, verbal suffix expressing intent),[4] perhaps under the influence of the auxiliary-joining suffix. This resulted in a change of the primary meaning of 싶다 (sipda), from "to seem to be about to do" to "to want".

SuffixEdit

(-go)

  1. Used to join the verb expressing the desired action to 싶다 (sipda, to want).
    싶다hago sipdato want to do
    싶다jukgo sipdaI want to die

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle Korean (Yale: -kwó), from Old Korean (*-kwo). In Old and Middle Korean, the word was not a suffix but an interrogative particle for polar questions, combining directly with nouns and taking the adnominal forms of verbs, whence ㄴ고 (-n'go) and ㄹ꼬 (-lkko).

In the standard Seoul dialect of the language, the suffix is no longer used in isolation and generally dated or archaic; see "Related terms" below.

SuffixEdit

(-go)

  1. (Gyeongsang) In the plain style, an interrogative suffix marking wh-word questions. It is only used for the copula 이다 (-ida, to be) and 아이다 (aida, to not be).
Usage notesEdit
Related termsEdit

ParticleEdit

(-go)

  1. (Gyeongsang) See above; sometimes appended directly to the noun, as in older forms of the language.
    이 뭣? (a Buddhist koan)I mwot-go?What is this?

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 김지오 (Kim Ji-o) (2019), “고대국어 연결어미 연구의 현황과 과제 [The conditions and future tasks of analyzing connective endings in Old Korean]”, in Gugyeol Yeon'gu, volume 43, pages 55–87
  2. ^ 안주호 (2003), “인용문과 인용표지의 문법화에 대한 연구 [A study on quotative sentences and the grammaticalization of quotation markers in Korean]”, in Damhwa-wa inji, volume 10, pages 145—165
  3. ^ 송재목 (2019), “일동장유가의 인용구문 [Quotative constructions in the Ildong Jang'yu-ga]”, in Hangul, volume 80, pages 241—287
  4. ^ 이영경 (2005), “'싶다'구문의 史的 변천에 대한 일고찰”, in 한국문화, volume 35, 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원, pages 1-25