nn Denne brukaren har norsk som morsmål og skriv nynorsk.
nb Denne brukeren har norsk som morsmål og skriver bokmål.
en-4 This user speaks English at a near-native level.
pt-2 Este usuário pode contribuir com um nível médio de português.
es-1 Este usuario puede contribuir con un nivel básico de español.
fr-1 Cet utilisateur peut contribuer avec un niveau élémentaire de français.
la-2 Hic usuarius lingua latina mediae difficultatis conferre potest.
grc-1 Ὅδε ἐγκυκλοπαιδειουργὸς ὀλίγον ἀρχαίως Ἑλληνιστὶ γράφειν οἷός τ’ ἐστίν.
Search user languages or scripts

Góðan dag



This is my attempt at scribbling down some sort of grammar-glossary for the Stavanger dialect.

Stavanger dialect differs from both standard Norwegian Bokmål and standard Norwegian Nynorsk in various ways. No official body mandates an official standard for how to properly write the Stavanger dialect. However, written works are intermittently published in Stavanger dialects. Moreover, the dialect is also used in other media, such as music and theatre. This means that, although incomparable to the volume of works in actually standardised forms of Norwegian, there is a breadth of attestations of the Stavanger dialect.

Case for Wiktionary


If I were to guess, the Stavanger dialect is probably stronger attested than a lot of other lects and actual languages. If, then, a reader were to stumble upon one of these texts, under what tag should the entry on gjønå (see Glossary below) be entered? Should it be entered as a dialectal entry in Norwegian, Norwegian Bokmål, Norwegian Nynorsk, or both Norwegian Bokmål and Norwegian Nynorsk? I feel there should be some way to accommodate this.


See also w:Stavangersk#Phonology



There are various controversies in Norwegian spelling which has been discussed throughout history. The lack of standardisation of the lect means that there isn't really a correct answer on how to spell certain things.

  • Soft consonants. As in other parts of Southwestern Norway, Stavanger dialect has "soft consonants", wherein the hard stops p, t, and k are pronounced voiced and (usually) unaspirated as b, d and g, at the end of words or between vowels. As I understand it, there is today some inconsistency, if not qualification, in how this softening is applied. Some of this inconsistency can be attributed to a kind of code-switching between different standards of Norwegian, which affects some words, but not others. Another question is whether or not this variation should be reflected in orthography. This latter question could be discussed further, but here I will make the choice of writing these soft consonants.
  • Silent consonants. As with most accents of Norwegian, a lot of consonants are considered silent. This includes silent ts in the end of definite singular suffixes and the standardised multi lemma det. It includes the ld, nd, and rd consonant clusters. I have chosen to mostly ignore silent consonants.
  • H-dropping, in Norwegian sometimes called halvemål is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative (or H-sound), especially in the beginning of words. This is not particularly prominent, though it does show up with regularity in the 3rd person masculine and feminine personal pronouns. Especially when used enclitically. See below at #Personal_pronouns for more.
  • Apocopal apostrophe. Some texts, possibly wishing to mark deviation from standardised forms of Norwegian, clip the words, leaving an apostrophy. For instance e' and va' is in some texts used instead of standard Norwegian er and var, while many other places plain e and va is used, without any apostrophe. The apostrophe might show up in many other forms as well.



There are some features that are particular to the Stavanger dialect. However, many of these are currently, or have been formerly, variations of Nynorsk. However, the categories in which these variations exist, is mostly the same as Norwegian in general. Some elaboration, however, is necessary, especially with adjectives, where the lect operates with categories which are obsolete in much of Norwegian.



Stavanger adjectives differ from standard Norwegian Bokmål and Nynorsk on especially two points:

  1. In the masculine and feminine singular indefinite forms of most adjectives have an ending, -e. "An e greie" in stead of "Han er grei". Note that for etymological reasons, this -e does not affect tone in the same way as plural -e. This means that goe ("good") could be either singular or plural, depending on pronunciation and immediate context. "Goe ting" could either be singular "a good thing" or plural "good things".
  2. Stavangersk distinguishes between grammatical gender in the definite forms of adjectives. Contemporary standard Bokmål and Nynorsk do not. Certain other Norwegian dialects also does this, and the vernacular codified by Ivar Aasen in the mid 1800s also had this feature, although he also distinguished distinguished grammatical gender in the plural forms. Stavangersk does not.

With these two features, we can make a table:

m. indef. f. indef. n. indef. m. def. f. def. n. def. pl.
goe goe gott goe goa goa goe
liden lidå lide litle litla litla små(e)



A lot of adverbs are based on the neuter forms of adjectives. Some are derived from the weak form of the adjectives, which came to be the definite forms. As the neuter definite forms in Stavangersk diverge from the Norwegian standards, so do these adverbs.

These adverbs can be written into one single phrase: "gjedna liga ofta hjemma aleina".



Stavanger nouns do not differ greatly from Norwegian generally. But there are some differences. One thing that we have yet to discuss is the plural forms of these nouns, for it seems to be difficult.

indefinite singular definite singular indefinite plural definite plural
ei dama
ei gada
(f2) weak feminine nouns
et aua
et hjerta
et hjørna
et øyra
(n2) weak neuter nouns
only a few words
et eple eple epler eplene (n2)

et kne
et tre




As with much else, Stavangersk bears more resemblance to Nynorsk than to Bokmål. The inventory of personal pronouns is the following.

  • 1st person singular: eg [object form meg], same as Norwegian Nynorsk eg.
  • 2nd person singular: du [object form deg], same as Bokmål and Nynorsk.
  • 3rd person singular (masculine): han pron. [object form han]; or (h-dropping) an pron. [object form an]
  • 3rd person singular (feminine): hu pron. [object form (1) hu; object form (2) na]; or (h-dropping) u pron. [object form (1) u; object form (2) na]
  • 3rd person singular (neuter): de [object form de] det
  • 1st person plural: me [object form oss or osser/ossår], same as Norwegian Nynorsk me.
  • 2nd person plural: dokker [object form dokker]. Norwegian Nynorsk has the form dokker, though it is not as much used as the more common de. The shorter form dokk may also appear.
  • 3rd person plural: di [object form di]. Some may also use dei, as found in Nynorsk.
  • 3rd person reflexive (singular and plural): seg, same as Bokmål and Nynorsk.



The basic inflection categories of Stavanger verbs do not differ from standardised Norwegian, having an infinitive, a present tense form, a preterite or past tense form, and a supine derived from the indefinite neuter singular form of the past participle. Some features are ubiquitous in the inflection of Stavanger verbs.



Stavanger dialect, as many other western dialects uses a-infinitive as opposed to e- or split infinitives or apocopy. This of course does not apply in verbs such as , ro or . Some highly frequent verbs, most ending in -r, may drop the a-infinitive, such as gjør(a), sei(a), spør(r)(a), and ver(a).

A- and E-verbs


Where Nynorsk uses the endings -ar and -er to mark the present tense of a-verbs and e-verbs, Stavanger dialect nearly without exception uses -e. This ending in also used on strong verbs. So kaste, spiste, and ligge are present tense forms of kasta, spisa, and ligga respectively.

Stavangersk keeps a divide between a-verbs and e-verbs in the past tense. However, whereas the divide between a-verbs and e-verbs in Nynorsk is based very much on etymology (was it a long type 1 or a type 2 weak verb in Old Norse?), Stavangersk is more comfortable with letting the phonotactics of the verb itself determine its class. It does this by firstly having a violent preference for e-verb inflection, having forms such as dånte where Nynorsk has dåna. Norwegian Bokmål, has some allowance for this; both dånte and dåna/dånet are allowed. However, Stavanger goes further, for instance with hopte as past tense of hoppa. Where the verb stem ends in certain consonant clusters, especially some ending in dentals, will always be a-verbs.

With e-verbs, what should be the primary dental stop of the dental suffix, has been in contention for a while, not least through the various Norwegian Nynorsk spelling reforms. I do not regard this as particularly important, especially not when the goal is to point out the broad lines of what makes the Stavanger dialect special.

Past tense shortening


Some e-verbs have the vowel of their stem shortened when rendered in the past tense. In "soft consonant" verbs (Confer with the note on "soft consonants" above, under #Orthography), this occurs together with a hardening of the final consonant of their stem.

  • í > ì
    • liga > likte
    • misliga > mislikte
    • skiba > skipte
  • ó > ù
    • broga > brukte
    • koga > kukte
    • roba > rupte
  • long ǿ > ỳ/ø
    • føda > fydde
    • kjøba > kypte
    • møda > møtte
  • øy > short ø
    • bløyda > bløtte
    • døyba > døpte
    • løyba > løpte
    • skrøyda > skrøtte
    • skøyda > skjøtte
    • støyba > støpte
    • støyda > støtte

Strong verbs


Strong verbs follow Germanic ablaut and umlaut.

Class 1
infinitive (present tense) past tense supine
å hiva (hive) heiv heve
Class 2
infinitive (present tense) past tense supine
å lyga (lyge) løyg løge
Class 3
infinitive (present tense) past tense supine
å detta (dette) datt dutte
å drikka (drikke) drakk drukke
Other ones
infinitive present tense past tense supine
å eda ede åd åde
å fara fare fór fóre
å komma komme kom komt
å ligga ligge låg låge
å se ser såg sitt
å sidda sidde såd såde
å sova sove sov sovt, sove
å ta tar tóg tatt, tóge



Some lemmas diverging from Norwegian written norms, may be presented outside the more in-depth discussion of morphology. For the purposes of this glossary, I use the corresponding Norwegian Nynorsk entry, or a more common synonym. If non-existent, Norwegian Bokmål definition may be used.

Various lists


Groups to be sorted

  • There are some terms for the romani people, most derogatory that should be sorted for the case of clarity.: fant, fark, farre, fente, fusse, landstrykar, omstreifar, radd, reisande, romani, sigøynar, splint, tater, vagabond.

Irregular plurals

  • ark= ork (i Sæt.)
  • bodn, bon, born, bådn
  • lond, lonn
  • nobn, nomn?
  • votn

Palatalliserte substantiv

  • agje
  • bakkje
  • barkje
  • hagje
  • kongje/kungje
  • magje
  • tangje
  • ungje
  • utangje

Irregular nouns


Masculine nouns

  • broder (brødrar)
  • bror (brør – brørne)
  • far (fedrar)
  • feil (feil – feila)
  • fot (føter)
  • hóv (hóvar/høver)
  • ljå (ljå(a)r)
  • mann (menn[er] – mennene)
  • nagl (negler)
  • rå (rår)
  • ting (ting – tinga)

Feminine nouns

  • agn, ogn (agner)
  • aksel (aksla – aksler – akslene), aksl, oksl (aksler)
  • bok (bøker)
  • bot (bøter)
  • brok (brøker)
  • dotter (døtrer)
  • drok (dreker), dråk (dræker)
  • ert (erta – erter – ertene), erter (ertra – erter – ertene)
  • fonn (fonner/fenner)
  • geit (geiter)
  • glo (glør – glørne), glod (gløder)
  • gro (grør – grørne)
  • gås (gjæser)
  • hank/honk (henker)
  • kòs (kaser)
  • lend (lender)
  • låg (læger)
  • moder (mødrer)
  • mor (mødrer)
  • nòt (neter), nøtt (nøtter)
  • nót (nøter)
  • reit (reiter)
  • ro (rør – rørne)
  • rå (rær – rærne)
  • skank/skonk (skjenker)
  • skrå (skrær)
  • skåk (skjæker)
  • strand (strender)
  • stong (stenger)
  • tann, tonn (tenner)
  • to (tør – tørne)
  • tong (tenger)
  • tro (trør – trørne)
  • tå (tær – tærne)
  • tåg (tæger)

Neuter nouns

  • barn (born – borna, barn – barna)
  • møbel (møblar)
  • skrift (skrifter)



Younger futhark

  • ᚠ fé
  • ᚢ úrr
  • ᚦ þurs
  • ᚬ áss
  • ᚱ reið
  • ᚴ kaun
  • ᚼ hagl
  • ᚾ nauð
  • ᛁ íss
  • ᛅ ár
  • ᛋ sól
  • ᛏ týrr
  • ᛒ bjǫrk
  • ᛘ maðr
  • ᛚ lǫgr
  • ᛦ ýr

Split infinitive verbs

  • aga, aka, ala, ana, apa, asa, baka, bala, bana, basa, beda, belja, bera, betala, beva, bevara, blada, blika, boda, bora, bosa, braga, braka, brasa, byrja, daga, dala, dana, delja, detta, draga, drepa, drynja, drysja, duna, dvelja, dynja, dølja, eta, eva, fara, fata, ferja, flaga, flara, flas(s)a, flata, flòta, flysja, flytta, fola, freda, frega, fremja, froda, gaga, gala, gana, gapa, gilja, gjera, gjeta (II), gjeva, glada, glana, gleda, gluma, gnaga, gnika, gova, grava, gremja, gropa, gruna, grysja, gula, gysja, haga, haka, hama, hata, hava, hela, hemja, herja, hesja, heta, hevja, hjala, hòla, hom(m)a, hòpa, hylja, hysja, hølja, jaga, kaka, kara, kava, kjasa, kjea, klaga, klaka, kleda, kløvja, knaka, knasa, knisa, knoda, kola, kom(m)a, kraka, krasa, krava, kreka, krevja, krita, krota, kunna, kveda, kvetja, kvika, kvima, lada, laga, lapa, lata, lava, le(d)a, leka, lem(m)a, lemja, lepja, lesa, léta, leta, lova, lùta, maka, mala, mana, masa, mata, meda, moka, mola, mon(n)a, møkja, nasa, nava, neva, olboga, para, pela, pesa, posa, prata, raga, raka, rana, rapa, rasa, reka, remja, reeva, roda, rydja, rysja, saga, saka, sama, seda, seeia, sela, selja, semja, setja/setta, sitja/sitta, sjaga, skada, skaka, skala, skapa, skara, skava, skilja, skipa, skjena, skjera, skjøn(n)a, skoda, skòla, skòra, skota, skrapa, skrata, skreva, skulla, skvala, skylja, slava, sleva, smaka, smala, smørja, snaka, snara, snasa, sova, spada, spara, spekja, spela, spora, spraka, sprala, spørja, spøta, staga, staka, stava, steda, stega, stela, stota, streka, streta, streva, stynja, styrja, svada, svaga, svala, svara, svemja, sverja, svipa, symja, taka, tala, tana, tapa, tasa, teia, tela, telja, temja, tenja, tevja, timja, tola, tora, tosa, treda, trega, trota, tvika, tvoga, tysja, umaka, una, uveta, uvita, vada, vaka, vara, vasa, vega, velja, venja, vera, verja, veta, veva, vevja, vilja, vima, vita, vraka, ylja, yrja, ølja, åtvara

Former forms

  • eg, je; ej, i, I, æ, æg
  • meg; me
  • min
  • du
  • deg; de
  • seg; se
  • sin
  • de, di, dokker; did, dokk, i, I
  • dokker, dykk; []


  • fâr, fòr, fór, fôr, fôra, fỳl, gróv, hỳl, jâr, jâra, Jâren, jûr, jûra, kortér, kòs, klỳv, klỳvja, klỳvfisk, klỳvsâl, lèm, lìt, sâl, sâla, sédd, séla, sìk, sík, tìn,
  • brôren, fór, môri


  • Jamvektsord (substantiv)
    aalvoru, aalogu, aku (aking), anvòku/aarvoku, beru, berju, blòku, blòtu, bòku (spekk), bòru, bòsu, busu, bryu, brynju, dagdvelju (tidtrøyting), drevju, drìvu, drysju (skrynju), esju (eldmyrje), etu (fór, mat), evju, ferje, fesju, fjøru/fjuru, flagu, flusu (flus), fròdu, furu, fylju, gìvu, glòpu, gòsu (av gjósa), gòvu, grìsu/glìsu, gròpu, gyrju, gysju, hesju, hòku/huku, hòlu, hòsu, idu, knòdu, kòmu, kòru, krytju, kviku, kvìsu, kvòdu (kvaada), kvòtu/kvetju, lègu, lèk(j)u, lètu, lògu, lòku, maru/muru, midju, mylju, myrju, mysu, netju, pysju, rèku, rèvu (rev-tik), rìdu, rìvu, ròdu (skridu), selju, semju, sètu (av sitja), skìvu, skjèru (sigd), skòku (av skaka), skòru, skòtu (lòku), skridu, skrynju, skytju, slev(j)u, slitu, slògu (slegil, tust), smidju, smògu, smòtu, smyrju, snòru, sògu, spỳtu, stòdu, stògu, stròku, svìpu, svòlu, tilju, tjøru/tjuru, tòku, (fyri-)tòlu, tvògu, tvòru, uhemju, u-tvegju, veru, verju, vìdu (tre-fang), vidju, viku, vitju, vòdu, vòku/vuku, yrju

Metaphonic lemmas

  • boso, busu, fjuru, flusu, furu, gutu, hoko, lugu, muru, sulu, tjuru, tugu, turu, uku, vuku



I am sandboxing.


  • ǫln > eirn (alen)
  • ǫlr > auldré (older)
  • ǫfund > augun (avund)



Verb templating



  • ɘ
  • iː, ɪ, eː, ɛ, æː, æ
  • yː, ʏ, øː, œ
  • ʉː, ʉ
  • uː, ʊ, oː, ɔ, ɑ

Old verbs


With Old Norse comparison