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EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English affrayed, affraied, past participle of afraien (to affray), from Anglo-Norman afrayer (to terrify, disquiet, disturb), from Old French effreer, esfreer (to disturb, remove the peace from), from es- (out) + freer (to secure, secure the peace), from Frankish *friþu (security, peace), from Proto-Germanic *friþuz (peace), from Proto-Germanic *frijōną (to free; to love), from Proto-Indo-European *prāy-, *prēy- (to like, love). Compare also afeard. More at free, friend.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

afraid (comparative more afraid, superlative most afraid)

  1. (usually used predicatively, not attributively) Impressed with fear or apprehension; in fear.
    He is afraid of death.
    He is afraid to die.
    He is afraid that he will die.
  2. (colloquial) regretful, sorry
    I am afraid I cannot help you in this matter.

Usage notesEdit

  • (Impressed with fear or apprehension; in fear; apprehensive): Afraid expresses a lesser degree of fear than terrified or frightened. It is often followed by the preposition of and the object of fear, or by an infinitive, or by a dependent clause, as shown in the examples above.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

See alsoEdit


WelshEdit

EtymologyEdit

af- (un-) +‎ rhaid (necessity)

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

afraid (feminine singular afraid, plural afraid, equative afreidied, comparative afreidiach, superlative afreidiaf)

  1. unnecessary, unessential
    • c. 1500, Ieuan Tew, poem in Cwrt Mawr manuscript no. 5, published and translated 1921 by T. Gwynn Jones, “Cultural Bases. A Study of the Tudor Period in Wales”, Y Cymmrodor. The Magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, vol. 31, page 182:
      mogelwch yma golyn
      a fo goeg, ag afu gwyn—
      a choegddyn crin, ledryn crach,
      o fradwr—nid afreidiach;
      beware of the sting of white-livered wretches, and every withered, niggardly wretch of a traitor—it were not less necessary;
    • c. 1600, Edmwnd Prys, quoted in A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative by J. Morris Jones, Oxford: 1913, p. 44:
      Amlwg fydd trŵyn a’r wyneb;
      Afraid i ni nodi neb.
      Plain is the nose on a face; it is unnecessary for us to mention anyone.

NounEdit

afraid m (plural afreidiau)

  1. superfluity, extravagance

MutationEdit

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
afraid unchanged unchanged hafraid
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

ReferencesEdit

  • afraid”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, 2014