Latin edit

 
Cave canem
Beware of the dog

Etymology edit

From Proto-Italic *kawēō, from earlier *kawējō, from Proto-Italic stative *(s)kewh₁-éh₁-(ye)-ti, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewh₁- (to perceive, pay attention).

Cognate with Ancient Greek κοέω (koéō), Sanskrit कवि (kaví, wise, poet, seer, sage), Lithuanian kavoti (safeguard, tend), Old Armenian ցուցանեմ (cʿucʿanem, I show), English show.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

caveō (present infinitive cavēre, perfect active cāvī, supine cautum); second conjugation

  1. to take precautions, beware, take care; to guard against, attend to a thing for a person, provide
    Synonyms: cūrō, accūrō, servō, videō, cōnsulō, prōcūrō, colō, cōnsultō
    Caveat emptor.
    Buyer beware.
    1. (with accusative) to beware of, keep away from, avoid
  2. (with ablative, with dative, with ab, with cum, with nē, with ut) to guard against, to be on one's guard against, to take care that (not)
    1. (imperative) beware not to!, refrain from!, make sure that not, mind that you don't!
      Cave sīs tē videam!
      Make sure I don't see you again!
      • c. 84 BCE – 54 BCE, Catullus, Carmina 50.13–14:
        Nunc audāx cave sīs, precēsque nostrās/ōrāmus, cave dēspuās, ocelle!
        Beware of being haughty now, I beg you, and don't reject my desperate request, my jewel!
  3. (with dative) to look out in the interests of
  4. (law) to make legal provisions (for or against), to order, decree, stipulate
  5. (law) to give surety or guarantees, to secure bail; to pledge, certify
    1. (with ab) to procure bail or surety from

Usage notes edit

The primary sense ("beware") may either govern a noun in the accusative or a subjunctive clause joined with , with the meaning "beware not to, make sure that you don't". However, the latter use became idiomatic early on with the particle omitted. In either case, the semantically-weakened cavĕ regularly has a short final vowel through iambic shortening. C.f. the parallel positive vidĕ (see that, make sure to).

Conjugation edit

   Conjugation of caveō (second conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present caveō cavēs cavet cavēmus cavētis cavent
imperfect cavēbam cavēbās cavēbat cavēbāmus cavēbātis cavēbant
future cavēbō cavēbis cavēbit cavēbimus cavēbitis cavēbunt
perfect cāvī cāvistī,
cāstī1
cāvit,
cāt1
cāvimus,
cāmus1
cāvistis,
cāstis1
cāvērunt,
cāvēre,
cārunt1
pluperfect cāveram,
cāram1
cāverās,
cārās1
cāverat,
cārat1
cāverāmus,
cārāmus1
cāverātis,
cārātis1
cāverant,
cārant1
future perfect cāverō,
cārō1
cāveris,
cāris1
cāverit,
cārit1
cāverimus,
cārimus1
cāveritis,
cāritis1
cāverint,
cārint1
passive present caveor cavēris,
cavēre
cavētur cavēmur cavēminī caventur
imperfect cavēbar cavēbāris,
cavēbāre
cavēbātur cavēbāmur cavēbāminī cavēbantur
future cavēbor cavēberis,
cavēbere
cavēbitur cavēbimur cavēbiminī cavēbuntur
perfect cautus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect cautus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect cautus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present caveam caveās caveat caveāmus caveātis caveant
imperfect cavērem cavērēs cavēret cavērēmus cavērētis cavērent
perfect cāverim,
cārim1
cāverīs,
cārīs1
cāverit,
cārit1
cāverīmus,
cārīmus1
cāverītis,
cārītis1
cāverint,
cārint1
pluperfect cāvissem,
cāssem1
cāvissēs,
cāssēs1
cāvisset,
cāsset1
cāvissēmus,
cāssēmus1
cāvissētis,
cāssētis1
cāvissent,
cāssent1
passive present cavear caveāris,
caveāre
caveātur caveāmur caveāminī caveantur
imperfect cavērer cavērēris,
cavērēre
cavērētur cavērēmur cavērēminī cavērentur
perfect cautus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect cautus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present cavē cavēte
future cavētō cavētō cavētōte caventō
passive present cavēre cavēminī
future cavētor cavētor caventor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives cavēre cāvisse,
cāsse1
cautūrum esse cavērī cautum esse cautum īrī
participles cavēns cautūrus cautus cavendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
cavendī cavendō cavendum cavendō cautum cautū

1At least one rare poetic syncopated perfect form is attested.

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Vulgar Latin: *cavicare

References edit

  • caveō” on page 315 of the Oxford Latin Dictionary (2nd ed., 2012)
  • caveo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • caveo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • caveo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (ambiguous) to prescribe in one's will: testamento aliquid cavere (Fin. 2. 31)