See also: -észik

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈɛsik]
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: eszik
  • Rhymes: -ɛsik

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Uralic *sewe- (to eat) + -ik. Cognates include Mansi тэ̄ӈкве (tè̄ňkwe), Finnish syödä and Estonian sööma.[1][2]

Verb edit

eszik

  1. (transitive) to eat
    Synonyms: (formal) étkezik, (formal; with object) fogyaszt, (slang) kajál, (of animals) táplálkozik
  2. (transitive, colloquial, preceded by mit) to like a certain trait about someone (-n/-on/-en/-ön)
Usage notes edit
See under Etymology 2.
Conjugation edit
Hyponyms edit
Troponyms edit
Derived terms edit

(With verbal prefixes):

Compound words
Expressions
See also edit
The seven sz-v stem verbs
  • eszik (“to eat”)
  • iszik (“to drink”)
  • hisz (“to believe, think”)
  • visz (“to take, carry”)
  • lesz (“to become; will be”)

  • tesz (“to do; to put”)
  • vesz (“to take, get, grab, buy”)
Indicative
1st-p. sg.
eszemiszom,
hiszekviszek, leszekteszekveszek
Infinitive enni, inni, hinni, vinni, lenni, tenni, venni Pres. part. evő, ivó, hí, vivő, lé/levő, tevő, vevő
Past
1st p. sg.
ettem, ittam, hittem, vittem,
lettem, tettem, vettem
Verbal
nouns
evésivás(hivés,) vivés,
levéstevésvevés
Imperative
1st-p. sg.
egyekigyakhiggyekvigyek, legyektegyekvegyek Past 3rd sg. evett, ivott, hitt, vitt, lett, tett, vett Other
nouns
ételitalhitelvitel (lét,) tételvétel
(obs./archaic  őn, —, hűn, vín, lőn, tőn, vőn) lénytényvény

Etymology 2 edit

From the esz- stem of eszik +‎ -ik (they, third-person plural definite-object personal suffix).

Verb edit

eszik

  1. third-person plural indicative present definite of eszik
Usage notes edit

As shown by the two etymologies, eszik can be a third-person singular indefinite form (the base form of this verb) or a third-person plural definite form. In other words, it can mean “he/she/it is eating something” or “they are eating that particular thing”. If the subject is not specified, the interpretation is decided by the definiteness of the object. Eszik egy almát has an indefinite object (cf. egy (a[n])), so it must be the indefinite form of the singular (“he/she/it is eating an apple”), while eszik az almát has a definite object (cf. az (the)), so it must be the definite form of the plural (“they are eating the apple”). If there is no article before the noun, it is normally indefinite: Kenyeret eszik (he/she/it is eating bread). If it is a pronoun, its reference needs to be checked. In Mindent megeszik, minden is indefinite so it means “he/she/it eats everything”, whereas in Mindet megeszik, mind is definite so it means “they eat all (of it)”. In practice, however, the context rarely if ever leaves any doubt about the number of the subject.

Etymology 3 edit

esz +‎ -ik (personal suffix)

Verb edit

eszik

  1. third-person plural indicative present definite of esz

References edit

  1. ^ Entry #893 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics.
  2. ^ eszik in Gerstner, Károly (ed.). Új magyar etimológiai szótár. (’New Etymological Dictionary of Hungarian’). Beta version. Budapest, MTA Nyelvtudományi Intézet / Magyar Nyelvtudományi Kutatóközpont, 2011–2022. (Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungary). Language abbreviations

Further reading edit

  • eszik in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • eszik in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2024)