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See also: gulet

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LatgalianEdit

VerbEdit

gulēt

  1. to sleep

LatvianEdit

 
Gulēt (1)

EtymologyEdit

From the same stem as the verb gult (to lie down) (q.v.), of which it was originally the iterative (and possibly causative) form. Originally it was an i-stem, as can be seen in dialectal forms like gulim, gulit instad of guļam, guļat. Cognates include Lithuanian gulė́ti, Sudovian guld (< *gult).[1]

PronunciationEdit

(file)

VerbEdit

gulēt intr., 3rd conj. irregular, pres. guļu, guli, guļ, past gulēju

  1. to sleep, to be asleep
    gulēt visu naktito sleep the whole night
    saldi gulētto sleep sweetly (= deeply)
    gulēt saldā miegā, saldu mieguto sleep a sweet (= deep) sleep
    laiks gulētit is time to sleep
    bērnam gribas gulēt the child wants to sleep
    (aiz)iet gulētto go to sleep
    ej (nu) gulēt!go to sleep!
    guļ kā lācishe sleeps like a bear (= very long)
    gulēt dienviduto take an afternoon nap (lit. to sleep midday)
  2. (of people, animals) to lie down (to be in horizontal position)
    gulēt uz sāniemto lie down sideways, on one's side
    gulēt uz mugurasto lie on one's back
    gulēt ar vaļējām acīmto lie down with one's eyes open
    gulēt saulēto lie in the sun
    gulēt smiltīs, pludmalēto lie on the sand, at the beach
  3. to lie in bed because of sickness; to be bedridden
    gulēt ar griputo be sick (lit. lie) with the flu
    gulēt ar plaušu karsonito be sick (lit. lie) with pneumonia
    gulēt nesamaņāto lie unconscious
    gulēt slimnīcāto be (lit. lie) in a hospital (= to be in treatmnet)
    gulēt uz (slimības) gultāto be bedridden (lit. to lie in (an illness) bed)
    gulēt uz nāves gultāto lie in one's death bed (terminal patient)
  4. (of dead people) to lie, to rest (to be buried in a grave)
    gulēt mūžīgā miegāto lie in eternal sleep (= to be dead)
    gulēt zem (zaļām) velēnāmto lie under the (green) grass
    tēvs guļ smilšu kalniņāfather lies/rests in the sand hill
    kur viņi ir, manu seno dienu draugi?... cits guļ tālās Spānijas mežonīgo kalnu klintīs, cits Francijas pretošanās kustības nezināmo varoņu brāļu kapāwhere are they, the friends of my old days?... one lies (= is buried) in the rocks of the wild Spanish mountains, another one in the grave of an unknown hero of the French Resistance
  5. (of plants) to lie (on the ground)
    parastās, gulošās tomātu šķirnesa common, lying (on the ground) variety of tomato
  6. (of objects) to lie, to be in a lying position
    uz galda guļ maizes klaipson the table (there) lies a loaf of bread
    šķūnī guļ pērnais siensin the barn (there) lies last year's hay
    viņa jau jūt, ka smaga roka guļ uz viņas plecashe felt that a heavy hand (was) lying on her shoulder
    laivā gulēja loms: divas līdakas un vienu prāvs asarisin the boat (there) lay the catch: two pikes and one large perch
  7. (of objects) to lie (idle), to not be in use
    ceļu un transporta trūkuma dēļ neskartas guļ milzu bagātībasdue to lack of roads and transportation, giant wealth lies untouched (under the ground)
    viņš iegriezās zvejnieku savienības veikalā un apskatījās, kādas preces guļ plauktoshe came into the fishermen union shop and checked which goods were lying on the shelves
  8. (of fluid substances, light, darkness) to spread over, to occupy (a place)
    pāri pilsētai gulēja nomākusies debessover the city a cloudy sky lay (= hovered, spread)
    virs upes jau gulēja sniega ūdeņion the river the snow water was lying
    pār kalniem gulēja tumsa kā jūra pār koraļļu rifiemthe darkness lay over the hills like the sea over coral reefs
    ielejā jau gulēja ēnasin the valley a shadow was lying
    rīta klusums gulēja pār zemithe morning silence lay (= spread itself) over the land

Usage notesEdit

There are two forms of the present active participle: guļošs and gulošs, both acceptable (the latter more frequent). Some authors suggest that guļošs should only be used in the sense of “sleeping,” while gulošs would have the more general sense of “lying (down).” In actual practice, however, this distinction is often not maintained.

ConjugationEdit

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

prefixed verbs:

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “gulēt”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7