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EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

 
The planet Jupiter photographed on 12 February 2019 by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Juno spacecraft. The word jovial can mean “pertaining to the astrological influence of the planet Jupiter” (sense 2).

Borrowed from French jovial (jolly, jovial), from Italian gioviale (jolly, jovial; (obsolete) born under the influence of the planet Jupiter), from Latin ioviālis (relating to the Roman god Jupiter), from Iuppiter, Iovis (the Roman god Jove or Jupiter, counterpart of the Greek god Zeus) (from Proto-Indo-European *dyew- (to be bright; heaven, sky)) + -ālis (suffix forming adjectives of relationship); analysable as Jove +‎ -ial.[1]

Sense 1 (“cheerful and good-humoured”) refers to the fact that individuals born under the astrological influence of the planet Jupiter were believed to have that disposition.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

jovial (comparative more jovial, superlative most jovial)

  1. (comparable) Cheerful and good-humoured; jolly, merry.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:happy
    Antonyms: saturnine; see also Thesaurus:sad
    • 1593, Gabriel Harvey, Pierces Supererogation: Or A New Prayse of the Old Asse, London: Imprinted by Iohn Wolfe, OCLC 165778203; republished as John Payne Collier, editor, Pierces Supererogation: Or A New Prayse of the Old Asse. A Preparative to Certaine Larger Discourses, Intituled Nashes S. Fame (Miscellaneous Tracts. Temp. Eliz. & Jac. I; no. 8), [London: [s.n.], 1870], OCLC 23963073, page 161:
      A melancholy boddy is not the kindeſt nurſe for a chearely minde, (the joviall complexion is ſoverainly beholding to nature,) [...]
    • 1621, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], “Democritvs Ivnior to the Reader”, in The Anatomy of Melancholy, Oxford: Printed by Iohn Lichfield and Iames Short, for Henry Cripps, OCLC 216894069; The Anatomy of Melancholy: [], 2nd corrected and augmented edition, Oxford: Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, 1624, OCLC 54573970, page 57:
      The moſt ſecure, happy, Ioviall & merry in the worlds eſteeme, are Princes & great men, free from melancholy, but for their cares, miſeries, ſuſpicions, Iealoſies, diſcontents, folly, & madneſſe, I referre you to Xenophons Tyrannus, where king Hieron diſcourſeth at large with Simonides the Poet, of this ſubject.
    • 1711 March 13, Joseph Addison; Richard Steele, “FRIDAY, March 2, 1710–1711 [Julian calendar]”, in The Spectator, number 2, London: J[acob] and R[ichard] Tonson, OCLC 1026609121; republished in Alexander Chalmers, editor, The Spectator; a New Edition, Carefully Revised, in Six Volumes: With Prefaces Historical and Biographical, volume I, New York, N.Y.: D. Appleton & Company, 1853, OCLC 191120697, page 88:
      But being ill-used by the above-mentioned widow, he was very serious for a year and a half; and though, his temper being naturally jovial, he at last got over it, he grew careless of himself, and never dressed afterwards.
    • 1790 August, “Art V. The Devil upon Two Sticks in England: Being a Continuation of Le Diable Boiteux of Le Sage. 12mo. 4 Vols. about 230 Pages in each. 12s. Sewed. Walter, Piccadilly. 1790. [book review]”, in The Monthly Review; or, Literary Journal, Enlarged, volume II, London: Printed for R[alph] Griffiths; and sold by T[homas] Becket, [], OCLC 901376714, page 392:
      [I]n polite ſocieties, he is the eaſy, well-bred man of faſhion; and, in the more convivial parties, he is the jovial companion.
    • 1797, Richard Graves, “On the Death of an Epicure”, in Select Epigrams. In Two Volumes, volume II, London: Printed by and for Sampson Low, []; and sold by W. H. Lunn, [], OCLC 1004252375, page 31:
      At length, my friends, the feaſt of life is o’er; / I’ve eat ſufficient, I can drink no more: / My nigh is come; I’ve ſpent a jovial day; ’Tis time to part; but, oh!—what is to pay?
    • 1843 December 19, Charles Dickens, “Stave Five. The End of It.”, in A Christmas Carol. In Prose. Being a Ghost Story of Christmas, London: Chapman & Hall, [], OCLC 55746801, pages 154–155:
      Running to the window, he opened it, and put out his head. No fog, no mist; clear, bright, jovial, stirring, cold; cold, piping for the blood to dance to; Golden sunlight; Heavenly sky; sweet fresh air; merry bells. Oh, glorious. Glorious!
    • 1905 January 12, Baroness Orczy [i.e., Emma Orczy], “Lord Grenville’s Ball”, in The Scarlet Pimpernel, London: Greening & Co., OCLC 51454043; The Scarlet Pimpernel: A Romance, popular edition, London: Greening & Co. Ltd., 20 March 1912, OCLC 235822313, page 115:
      A long, jovial, inane laugh broke the sudden silence which had fallen over everyone.
    • 1918, W[illiam] B[abington] Maxwell, chapter XXXIV, in The Mirror and the Lamp, Indianapolis, Ind.: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, OCLC 4293071, page 267:
      She takes the whole thing with desperate seriousness. But the others are all easy and jovial—thinking about the good fare that is soon to be eaten, about the hired fly, about anything.
    • 1951 December, Rock Island Lines News Digest, volume X, number 12, Chicago, Ill.: Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company, OCLC 31916124, page 1:
      [A] jovial Santa Claus with an understanding heart and an attentive ear— [...]
  2. (not comparable, astrology, obsolete) Pertaining to the astrological influence of the planet Jupiter; having the characteristics of a person under such influence (see sense 1).
    • 1682, Joseph Blagrave, “[The Effects of Directions.] The Ascendant to the Body of Jupiter.”, in Obadiah Blagrave, editor, Blagrave’s Introduction to Astrology. In Three Parts. [], London: Printed by E. Tyler, and R. Holt, for Obadiah Blagrave, [], OCLC 228724142, part III, page 226:
      This Planet [Jupiter] being a Fortune, and Friend unto nature, inclineth the native, upon this direction, not only unto healthfulneſs, but alſo to be jovial and merry, affable and pleaſant, and to delight in the company of religious men: [...] [T]his direction importeth good from jovial perſons, and is an excellent time to have dealings with, or to receive any courteſie from, or benefit by them, [...]
    • 1852, William Lilly; Zadkiel [pseudonym; Richard James Morrison], “Of the Fourth House, and Judgments Depending thereon”, in An Introduction to Astrology []: A Grammar of Astrology, and Tables for Calculating Nativities. [], London: H[enry] G[eorge] Bohn, [], OCLC 1077929409, page 145:
      As ☉ is near to a ⚹ of ♃, so did a jovial man endeavour to procure the purchase (after I began), but ♃ is cadent and in detriment, which shewed he should not prevail.

Alternative formsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

ReferencesEdit

Further readingEdit


FrenchEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Italian gioviale, from Latin ioviālis.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

jovial (feminine singular joviale, masculine plural joviaux, feminine plural joviales)

  1. jovial, jolly

Further readingEdit


GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from French jovial, from Italian gioviale, from Latin ioviālis.

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

jovial

  1. jovial

Further readingEdit


Norwegian BokmålEdit

EtymologyEdit

From German jovial, from Latin jovialis.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ju.vi.aːl/, [jʊ.ʋɪ.ˈaːl]

AdjectiveEdit

jovial (neuter singular jovialt, definite singular and plural joviale)

  1. jovial

ReferencesEdit

“jovial” in The Bokmål Dictionary.


Norwegian NynorskEdit

EtymologyEdit

From German jovial, from Latin jovialis.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ju.vi.aːl/, [jʊ.ʋɪ.ˈaːl]

AdjectiveEdit

jovial (neuter singular jovialt, definite singular and plural joviale)

  1. jovial

ReferencesEdit

“jovial” in The Nynorsk Dictionary.


PortugueseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin ioviālis.

AdjectiveEdit

jovial m or f (plural joviais, comparable)

  1. jovial; merry, cheerful

SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin ioviālis.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /xoˈbjal/, [xoˈβjal]

AdjectiveEdit

jovial (plural joviales)

  1. Jovian
  2. cheerful, jovial

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit