pilns

Contents

LatvianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *pilˀnas, from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₁nós, from *pleh₁-, *pl̥- ‎(to pour, to flow; to heap, to fill) (with an adjectivizing suffix -no-), the same stem as pildīt ‎(to fill) (q.v.). The original meaning was thus “poured,” “flowed,” “heaped,” from which “filled.” Cognates include Lithuanian pìlnas, Old Prussian pilnan ‎(whole) (singular accusative), erpilninaiti ‎(fill it!) (imperative 2nd person plural), Old Church Slavonic пльнъ ‎(plĭnŭ), плънъ ‎(plŭnŭ, full), Russian по́лный ‎(pólnyj), Proto-Germanic *fulla- (< *fulna- < *pulna-; Gothic 𐍆𐌿𐌻𐌻𐍃 ‎(fulls), German voll, English full), Sanskrit पूर्ण ‎(pūrṇá, filled, full) (< *pūlna- < *pl̥-no-), Latin plēnus ‎(full; strong, satiated).[1]

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

pilns (def. pilnais, comp. pilnāks, sup. vispilnākais; irreg. adv. pilnam, pilnām)

  1. (of containers) full (without any space left)
    pilna bļoda — full bowl
    pilna kanna ar pienu — pot full of milk
    piebērt pilnus grozus ar kartupeļiem — to load baskets full of potatoes
    piesmelt pilnu spaini ar ūdeni — to draw a full bucket of water
  2. (of spaces, rooms) full (completely occupied)
    pilns skapis ar drēbēm — a wardrobe full of clothes
    pilns penālis ar zīmuļiem — a pencil case full of pencils
    piekraut pilnu šķūni ar sienu — to load a barn full of hay
  3. (of flat objects) full (with completely occupied surface; with many thing on its surface)
    pilns galdsfull table (with food, drinks, etc.)
    zeme piebirusi pilna ar āboliem — the earth was covered full of apples
    piebārstīt pilnu grīdu ar skaidām — to scatter sawdust all over the floor
  4. (of paper, books, etc.) full (completely written, drawn over; with many writings, drawings)
    pierakstīt pilnu kladi ar lekcijām — to fill a notebook (= to write it full) with lectures
    burtnīca pilna ar stundu plāniem — a notebook full of lesson plans
    grāmata pilna ar krāsainiem zīmējumiem — a book full of colorful illustrations
  5. (of places, objects) full (with many people, animals, plants, objects; with all available places occupied; where some substance has spread)
    pilns veikals ar pircējiem — a shop full of customers
    ielas pilnas turistu — streets full of tourists
    ļaužu pilnas ielas — streets full of people
    autobuss pilns ar pasažieriem — a bus full of passengers
    strops pilns ar bitēm — a hive full of bees
    pilns parks ar vāverem — a park full of squirrels
    purvs pilns odu — a swamp full of mosquitoes
    pilns dārzs ar ābelēm — a garden full of apple trees
    šogad meži pilni sēņu — this year the forests (are) full of mushrooms
    noliekt riekstu pilnu lazdas zaru — to tilt, to bend a hazel branch full of nuts
    virtuve pilna ar dūmiem — a kitchen full of smoke
    pagalms pilns ar bērnu čalām — a yard full of children's chatter
  6. (of substances) full (with considerable admixture of something else)
    graudi pilni pelavām — grains full of chaff
    kaļķi pilni ar smiltīm — lime filled with sand
    duļķu pilns ūdens — water full of mud
  7. (of natural phenomena) full (where something occurs or is formed in large quantites)
    ieleja pilna ar biezu miglu — a valley full of thick mist
    zeme pilna valgmes — land full of moisture, humidity
    ceļi pilni ar dubļiem — roads full of mud
  8. (of processes, activities) full (where some intense activity occurs, characterized by some intense activity)
    istaba ir rosības pilna — the room is full of activity, of hustle and bustle
    grūtību pilns ceļojums — a trip full of difficulties, hardships
    gaidu pilnas stundas — hours full of waiting
    pārdzīvot laimes pilnus mirkļus — to live, experience moments full of happiness, bliss
    optimisma pilns romāns — a novel full of optimism
  9. (of people or their actions) full (feeling, possessing some mental feature very intensely)
    prieka pilns bērns — a child full of joy
    pārliecības pilns cilvēks — a person full of confidence
    spēka pilns jauneklis — a young man full of strength
    pārliecības pilna rīcība — an action full of confidence
    neizpratnes pilna seja — a face full of incomprehension
    naida pilns skatiens — a look full of hate
    prieka pilns sauciens — a cry full of joy
  10. (of qualities, means; usually in locative) full (at the highest intensity, at the highest level of development)
    braukt pilnā ātrumā — to drive at full speed
    pilna slodzefull-time
    pilnā jaudā, ar pilnu jaudu — at full capacity, with all strength
    runāt, dziedāt, kliegt pilnā balsī — to speak, sing, shout at full voice
    pilnā kaujas gatavībā — in full combat readiness
    rudzi ir pilnā briedumā — the rye is in full maturity
  11. (of plans, books, courses, teams) full, complete, whole, entire (covering the whole set, extension; having all parts;)
    pilns apmācību kurssfull training course
    noklausīties pilnu lekciju ciklu — to listen to the full lecture series
    pilna biogrāfijafull biography
    pilns komplekts — a full, complete set
    pilns lidmašīnas personālsastāvsfull flight personnel
    hokeja komanda spēlē pilnā sastavā — the hockey team plays in its full composition (= the full team, the whole team)
  12. (of amounts, measurements) full, whole, complete (corresponding exactly to the given value)
    nostrādāt pilnu darba nedēļu — to work two full work weeks
    sasniegt pilnus astoņpadsmit gadus — to reach, to achieve full eighteen years (of age)
  13. (of circles, lines, time periods) full, continuous, uninterrupted
    pilns apgrieziensfull, complete rotation
    darba tika pabeigti tikai pilnā naktī — the work was finished only in (= after) a full night
  14. (of body, body parts) full (relatively large, stout)
    miesās pilns cilvēks — a full-bodied (= large, stout) person
    sieviete ar pilnām lūpām — a woman with full lips
  15. (colloquial, of people) full, very drunk
    daži tik pilni, ka streipuļoja — some (of the people) so full (= drunk) that they staggered

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “pilns”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7
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