Contents

LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *teus-, *tus-(to empty), from *teu-, *tu-(to swell) (whence also Latvian tūkt(to swell), q.v.). The sequence suggests irregular changes: *tus-k-, *tus-t- (with suffixes -k, -t) → *tuskya-, *tustya-, which then merge as *tusktya-*tuks(t)ya (metathesis) → tukša-. Semantic development: “swollen, bloated” → “empty inside” → “empty.” Cognates include Lithuanian tùščias (nominative plural tuštì), Old Church Slavonic тъшть(tŭštǐ, empty), Old East Slavic тъщь(tŭščǐ), Russian тощий(tóščij, weak, thin, lean), Proto-Slavic *tъska(emptiness) (Russian тоска(toská, anguish, tedium, longing)), Sanskrit तुच्छः(túcchyáḥ, empty, vain), Latin tesqua(desert) (< *tueskuā), Ossetian туссæг(tussæg, weak, skinny, thin).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

tukšs (def. tukšais, comp. tukšāks, sup. vistukšākais; adv. tukši)

  1. (of containers, hollow objects) empty (in which nothing was put)
    tukša bļoda, pudele, soma, atvilktne‎ ― empty bowl, bottle, bag, drawer
    tukšs grozs, maiss, spainis‎ ― empty basket, bag, bucket
    tukša kabata‎ ― empty pocket (colloquially, lack of money)
  2. (of places, areas) empty, blank (not taken, not filled with something)
    tukšs pagrabs, plaukts‎ ― empty cellar, shelf
    tukša malkas nojume‎ ― empty wood shed
    tukšs sienas laukums‎ ― empty, blank area on the wall
    tukšs galds‎ ― empty table (esp. without food, drink)
  3. (of rooms) unfurnished
    tukša istaba‎ ― empty room
  4. (of hanging supports) empty (with nothing hanging on them)
    tukšs drēbju pakaramais‎ ― empty clothes hanger
    tukšs vadzis‎ ― empty peg
  5. (of windows, doors) empty (without panes, leaves)
    tukšas logu ailes‎ ― empty window frames
  6. (of wells, bodies of water) empty (without water)
    tukša aka‎ ― empty well
  7. (stomach) empty (without food)
    tukšs vēders‎ ― empty stomach
  8. (of paper, book) empty (without any writing or drawing on it)
    Ēvalds pagrieza baltajai lapiņai otru pusi, tā bija tukša‎ ― Ēvalds turned the white page over to the other side, it was empty
  9. (of buildings, rooms, areas, means of transportation) empty (without people, animals; vacant, uninhabited)
    tukša iela, šoseja, laiva‎ ― empty street, highway, ship
    tukšs trolejbuss, vagons‎ ― empty trolley, train car
    tukšs bišu strops‎ ― empty beehiļve
    tukša lapsu ala‎ ― empty fox hole, earth
    (of places to sit, stand, etc.) empty (vacant)
    mēs visi sēdam pie galda, tikai mātes vieta tukša‎ ― we all sat at the table, only mother's place (was) empty
  10. (of places, areas) empty (without vegetation, without plants, without crops)
    visi tīrumi ir tukši‎ ― all fields are empty
    zeme nekur nepaliek tukša, augi ieviešas katrā piemērotā' stūrītī‎ ― the earth is nowere empty, plants grow in every appropriate spot
  11. (of fruits, nuts) empty (without pit, kernel, seed, more rarely without leaves)
    tukšs rieksts‎ ― empty nut
    tukša zirņu pāksts‎ ― empty pea pod
  12. (of time periods) empty (with strongly felt shortage or lack of food, money, goods, etc.))
    tagard ir tukškais laiks; nav ne gaļas, ne naudas‎ ― now is the emptier (= emptiest) time: there is neither meat nor money
  13. (of time periods) empty (without harvest, produce)
    šogad manām ābelēm ir tukšais gads‎ ― this year my apple trees are having an empty (= fruitless) year
  14. (of shops, establishments, entities) empty (without merchandise, goods in stock; without money)
    tukšs pārtikas veikals‎ ― empty grocery store (i.e., without groceries)
    Prūsijas valsts kase bija tukša‎ ― the Prussian treasury was empty
    šīs mājas ir tukšas, viss, kas te kādreiz bija, ir jau paņemts‎ ― these houses are empty, everything that used to be here has already been taken
  15. (of peoples) empty, poor
    kur citur lai šie atstātie, tukšie, bezspēcīgie atrastu patversmi?‎ ― where else would the abandoned, empty, powerless find shelter?
  16. (of actionss) empty, in vain (without the desired effect)
    tukši pūliņi‎ ― empty efforts
  17. (of actions, words) empty, vain, idle (without serious content, without purpose, without meaning, significance)
    tukšas runas, tukša runāšana‎ ― empty talk, empty talking
    tukšas frāzes‎ ― empty sentences, words
    tukšas izpriecas, cerības‎ ― empty pleasures, hopes
    tukši sapņi‎ ― empty dreams
    tukšs apgalvojums‎ ― empty statement
  18. (of time periods) empty (without activity, uneventful)
    tukšs, bezdarbībā pavadīts laiks‎ ― empty, idly spent time
  19. (of people) empty (without depth, meaningful spiritual life; frivolous)
    nožēlojami tukša dvēsele‎ ― a miserably empty soul
    vieglprātīgas, tukšas meitenes portrets‎ ― portrait of a frivolous, empty girl
  20. (of eyes, gaze, face) empty (colorless, lifeless)
    skumji tukšs skatiens‎ ― sadly empty gaze
    lai cik skaista, bet tukša seja vienmēr būs vulgāra‎ ― no matter how beautiful, an empty face will always be vulgar

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “tukšs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN 9984-700-12-7