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U+4E4F, 乏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E4F

[U+4E4E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E50]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 4, 丿+3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 竹戈弓人 (HINO), four-corner 20307, composition丿)

ReferencesEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*prom, *proms
*promʔ
*proms
*pʰoms, *bob
*pʰoms, *bob, *kpʰob
*pʰom, *pʰoms
*bom
*poŋʔ
*sproːb
*brub
*bob

Perhaps an ideogram (指事) generated by replacing uppermost stroke of (“straight; right”) with a slanted stroke 丿 — not right; lacking.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hoa̍t - literary;
  • ha̍t - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: huag8 / huêg8 / hêg8 / hak8
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hua̍k / hue̍k / he̍k / ha̍k
    • Sinological IPA (key): /huak⁴/, /huek⁴/, /hek⁴/, /hakʰ⁴/
Note:
  • huag8/huêg8 - literary (huêg8 - Chaozhou);
  • hêg8 - vernacular (“tired”);
  • hak8 - vernacular (“to lack”).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (148)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨɐp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/biɐp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buap̚/
Li
Rong
/biɐp̚/
Wang
Li
/bĭwɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯wɐp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjop ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b](r)[o]p/
English lack (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2852
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bob/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to lack
      ―  quē  ―  to lack; to be short of
  2. poor
    /   ―  pín  ―  poor
  3. tired
      ―    ―  tired

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“tired”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 疲倦, 疲乏, 疲累, 疲憊
Mandarin Beijing ,
Taiwan
Jinan ,
Xi'an ,
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou ,
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𤸁
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𤸁,
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𤸁,
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu) , 𤸁
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Huizhou Jixi 吃力
Jin Taiyuan ,
Min Bei Jian'ou ,
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen 𤺪,
Quanzhou 𤺪,
Zhangzhou 𤺪,
Taipei 𤺪,
Penang 𤺪
Philippines (Manila) 𤺪
Chaozhou
Shantou
Wu Suzhou 吃力
Wenzhou , 吃力
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng 鶴累

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. poverty
  2. lack
  3. scarcity

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(pip)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul):
    • Name (hangeul): 모자랄 (revised: mojaral, McCune–Reischauer: mojaral)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(phạp)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.