U+4E4F, 乏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E4F

[U+4E4E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E50]

Translingual

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Stroke order
Mainland China, Japan
 
(Hong Kong, Taiwan:
stroke 3 is split into two:
(3A) horizontal rightward and
(3B) diagonal downward.
)

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 4, 丿+4 in traditional Chinese and Korean, 丿+3 in mainland China and Japanese, 5 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 4 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 竹戈弓人 (HINO), four-corner 20307, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 82, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 133
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 34, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E4F

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠂜
𠓟
𣥄
to be moderate

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Possibly an ideogram (指事) generated by replacing uppermost stroke of (“straight; right”) with a slanted stroke 丿 — not right; lacking.

According to Shuowen, an ideogram (指事) created from reversing (“straight; right”). This is more evident in the Small Seal Script form.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • ha̍t - vernacular (“lacking; to be moderate”);
  • hoa̍t - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: huag8 / huêg8 / hêg8 / hag8
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hua̍k / hue̍k / he̍k / ha̍k
      • Sinological IPA (key): /huak̚⁴/, /huek̚⁴/, /hek̚⁴/, /hak̚⁴/
Note:
  • huag8/huêg8 - literary (huêg8 - Chaozhou);
  • hêg8 - vernacular (“tired”);
  • hag8 - vernacular (“to lack”).

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (148)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter bjop
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bɨɐp̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /biɐp̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biɐp̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buap̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /biɐp̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭwɐp̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱi̯wɐp̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    faat6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ bjop ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[b](r)[o]p/
    English lack (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2852
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*bob/

    Definitions

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    1. to lack
        ―  quē  ―  to lack; to be short of
    2. poor
        ―  pín  ―  poor
    3. tired
        ―    ―  tired
    4. (Hokkien) lacking; insufficient; inadequate
    5. (Hokkien) to be moderate; to abstain; to check; to restrict oneself (in food, usage, spending, addiction, etc.)
      [Hokkien, trad.]
      [Hokkien, simp.]
      Chiú tio̍h ha̍t leh lim. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      Drinking alcohol should be in moderation.

    Synonyms

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    Compounds

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    References

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    Japanese

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    Kanji

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    (Jōyō kanji)

    1. poverty
    2. lack
    3. scarcity

    Readings

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    Compounds

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    Korean

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    Etymology

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    From Middle Chinese (MC bjop).

    Hanja

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    (eumhun 모자랄 (mojaral pip))

    1. hanja form? of (lack)

    Compounds

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    References

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    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]
    • Naver Hanja Dictionary: 乏

    Vietnamese

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    Han character

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    : Hán Nôm readings: phạp, phạc

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.