U+4E4F, 乏
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E4F

[U+4E4E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E50]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 4, 丿+3, 4 strokes, cangjie input 竹戈弓人 (HINO), four-corner 20307, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 82, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 133
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 34, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E4F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠂜
𠓟
𣥄

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Possibly an ideogram (指事) generated by replacing uppermost stroke of (“straight; right”) with a slanted stroke 丿 — not right; lacking.

According to Shuowen, an ideogram (指事) created from reversing (“straight; right”)[1]. This is more evident in the Small Seal Script form.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hoa̍t - literary;
  • ha̍t - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: huag8 / huêg8 / hêg8 / hak8
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: hua̍k / hue̍k / he̍k / ha̍k
    • Sinological IPA (key): /huak̚⁴/, /huek̚⁴/, /hek̚⁴/, /hakʰ⁴/
Note:
  • huag8/huêg8 - literary (huêg8 - Chaozhou);
  • hêg8 - vernacular (“tired”);
  • hak8 - vernacular (“to lack”).

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (3)
Final () (148)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bɨɐp̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/biɐp̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/biɐp̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buap̚/
Li
Rong
/biɐp̚/
Wang
Li
/bĭwɐp̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱi̯wɐp̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
faat6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ bjop ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b](r)[o]p/
English lack (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2852
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bob/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to lack
      ―  quē  ―  to lack; to be short of
  2. poor
    /   ―  pín  ―  poor
  3. tired
      ―    ―  tired

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 《春秋傳》曰:“反正爲乏。” from 新华字典

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. poverty
  2. lack
  3. scarcity

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC bɨɐp̚).

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 모자랄 (mojaral pip))

  1. Hanja form? of (lack).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]
  • Naver Hanja Dictionary: 乏

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: phạp, phạc

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.