See also:
U+4E4E, 乎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E4E

[U+4E4D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E4F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 4, 丿+4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹火木 (HFD), four-corner 20409, composition𠂌)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 82, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 131
  • Dae Jaweon: page 166, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 36, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4E4E

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠂞
𠂠
Hokkien question particle

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢaː): semantic [Term?] (wind; air) + phonetic (OC *kʰluːʔ, branch) – original form of (OC *qʰaː, “to call; to cry”). Compare (OC *ɢeː).

Etymology 1Edit

in; at; on
Attrited or unstressed form of (OC *qa) (Schuessler, 2007).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

PronunciationEdit


Note: wu4 - rare.
Note:
  • ho͘ - literary;
  • hohⁿ/hôⁿ/hoⁿ/hōⁿ - vernacular (question particle).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xu⁵⁵/
    Harbin /xu⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /xu²¹/
    Jinan /xu⁴²/
    Qingdao /xu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /xu²⁴/
    Xi'an /xu²¹/
    Xining /xv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /xu³¹/
    Ürümqi /xu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /xu⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /xu³¹/
    /fu³¹/
    Guiyang /fu⁵⁵/
    Kunming /xu⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /xu³¹/
    Hefei /xu²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /xu¹¹/
    Pingyao /xu¹³/
    Hohhot /xu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /hu⁵³/
    /ɦu²³/
    Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦu²¹³/
    Wenzhou /vu³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xu³¹/
    Tunxi /xu¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /fu¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɸu³³/
    Gan Nanchang /fu⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fu¹¹/
    Taoyuan /fu¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fu²¹/
    Nanning /fu⁵⁵/
    /wu²¹/
    Hong Kong /fu²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔ³⁵/
    /hɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hu⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xu⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hu³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣo/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    wu4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hu › ‹ hu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢˁa/ /*ɢˁa/
    English (Q particle) in, at

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5189
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢaː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. in; at; on
      Synonym: ()
    2. (indicates the object of an action) with; on
      Synonym: ()
    3. (indicates comparison) than
      Synonym: ()
    4. A suffix placed after adjectives and adverbs to express praise or amazement.
    5. Sentence-final interrogative particle.
    6. Sentence-final exclamatory particle.
    7. Sentence-final imperative particle.
    8. Sentence-final speculative particle.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    PronunciationEdit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (hō͘).

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 어조사 (eojosa ho))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit


    Old KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From the Middle Chinese reading (MC ɦuo).

    PhonogramEdit

    (*-wo or *-hwo)

    1. A syllabic phonogram denoting either final syllable *-wo or *-hwo

    Etymology 2Edit

    SuffixEdit

    (*-wo)

    1. A very common verbal suffix, sometimes called the "modulator" in English, whose meaning is disputed. See the Middle Korean entry (-wo) for more.
    DescendantsEdit
    • Middle Korean: (-wo, yang-vowel modulator suffix)

    Etymology 3Edit

    SuffixEdit

    (*-wo)

    1. An adverb-deriving suffix.
    DescendantsEdit
    • Middle Korean: (-wo, yang-vowel adverb-deriving suffix)

    Etymology 4Edit

    VerbEdit

    (*h(oy)-wo)

    1. Form with modulator suffix of (*ho(y)-, to do)

    ReferencesEdit

    • 황선엽 (Hwang Seon-yeop), 이전경 (Yi Jeon-gyeong), 하귀녀 (Ha Gwi-nyeo), 이용 (Yi Yong), 박진호 (Park Jin-ho), 김성주 (Kim Seong-ju), 장경준 (Jang Gyeong-jun), 서민욱 (Seo Min-uk), 이지영 (Yi Ji-yeong), 서형국 (Seo Hyeong-guk). (2009) 석독구결사전/釋讀口訣辭典 [Dictionary of interpretive gugyeol], Bakmunsa, →ISBN, pages 393—396

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: hồ

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.