U+7D2F, 累
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D2F

[U+7D2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D30]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*roːl, *roːls
*roːl
*roːl
*roːl, *rul
*roːl, *rul
*roːlʔ
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːl
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːll, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls
*ruːl, *rul, *ruls
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ
*ruːl
*ruːl
*ruːl, *rulʔ
*ruːl
*ruːlʔ
*ruːlʔ
*ruːlʔ
*ruːls, *rolʔ, *rols
*ruːls, *rul
*rolʔ, *rul
*rul, *rulʔ
*rul
*rul, *ruls
*rul
*rul
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ruːls, *rolʔ, *rols):  + .

Simplified from ()

A popular theory consider this character as an ideogramic compound representing the tiredness after work. In ancient China, men were working in the field while women worked in silk farming . This is a mnemonic and not the etymology.

Han characterEdit

(radical 120 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田女戈火 (WVIF), four-corner 60903, composition)

  1. tired
  2. implicate, involve
  3. bother

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 919, character 35
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1351, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3381, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7D2F
  • McNaughton, William (2005) Reading & Writing Chinese: Simplified Character Edition, 2nd Edition edition, Tuttle, ISBN 978-0804835091, page 10

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 累 (積) 累 (連)
Mandarin Beijing /lei²¹⁴/ /lei⁵¹/
Harbin /lei²¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Tianjin /lei¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Jinan /luei⁵⁵/ /luei²¹/
Qingdao /le⁵⁵/ /le⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luei⁵³/ /luei³¹²/
Xi'an /luei⁵³/ /luei⁰/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/ /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei⁵³/ /luei¹³/
Lanzhou /luei⁴⁴²/ /luei¹³/
Ürümqi /luei⁵¹/ /luei²¹³/
Wuhan /nei⁴²/ /nei³⁵/
Chengdu /nuei⁵³/ /nuei¹³/
Guiyang /nuei⁴²/ /nuei²¹³/
Kunming /luei⁵³/ /luei²¹²/
Nanjing /luəi²¹²/ /luəi⁴⁴/
Hefei /le²⁴/ /le⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁵³/ /luei⁴⁵/
Pingyao /luei⁵³/ /luei³⁵/
Hohhot /luei⁵³/ /luei⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /le²³/ /le²³/
Suzhou /le̞⁵¹/ /le̞³¹/
Hangzhou /lei⁵³/ /lei¹³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/ /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le³⁵/ /le²²/
Tunxi /li¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/ /lei⁵⁵/
/lei¹¹/
Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/ /nəi²¹/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹³/ /lui²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁴⁴/ /lui⁵³/
Taoyuan /lui⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/ /løy²²/
Nanning /lui²⁴/ /lui²²/
Hong Kong /løy²²/ /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/ /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly²⁴/ /ly⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui²¹³/ /lui³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (37) (37)
Final () (12) (12)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liuᴇX/ /liuᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/lʷiɛX/ /lʷiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljuɛX/ /ljuɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwiə̆X/ /lwiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/liueX/ /liueH/
Wang
Li
/lǐweX/ /lǐweH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lwie̯X/ /lwie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lěi lèi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lěi lěi
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljwe › ‹ ljweX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]oj/ /*[r]ojʔ/
English rope (to tie s.o. up) accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 7727 7733 7735
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2 3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ruːls/ /*rolʔ/ /*rols/
Notes

AdjectiveEdit

  1. tired, weary
    •   ―  Wǒ hěn lèi.  ―  I'm tired.
  2. (of work) hard; tiring
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of (“tired”)
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 疲倦疲乏疲累疲憊
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𤸁
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𤸁
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𤸁
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu) 𤸁
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen 𤺪
Quanzhou 𤺪
Zhangzhou 𤺪
Taipei 𤺪
Wu Suzhou 吃力
Wenzhou 吃力
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng 鶴累

VerbEdit

  1. to strain, to wear out

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 累 (積) 累 (連)
Mandarin Beijing /lei²¹⁴/ /lei⁵¹/
Harbin /lei²¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Tianjin /lei¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Jinan /luei⁵⁵/ /luei²¹/
Qingdao /le⁵⁵/ /le⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luei⁵³/ /luei³¹²/
Xi'an /luei⁵³/ /luei⁰/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/ /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei⁵³/ /luei¹³/
Lanzhou /luei⁴⁴²/ /luei¹³/
Ürümqi /luei⁵¹/ /luei²¹³/
Wuhan /nei⁴²/ /nei³⁵/
Chengdu /nuei⁵³/ /nuei¹³/
Guiyang /nuei⁴²/ /nuei²¹³/
Kunming /luei⁵³/ /luei²¹²/
Nanjing /luəi²¹²/ /luəi⁴⁴/
Hefei /le²⁴/ /le⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁵³/ /luei⁴⁵/
Pingyao /luei⁵³/ /luei³⁵/
Hohhot /luei⁵³/ /luei⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /le²³/ /le²³/
Suzhou /le̞⁵¹/ /le̞³¹/
Hangzhou /lei⁵³/ /lei¹³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/ /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le³⁵/ /le²²/
Tunxi /li¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/ /lei⁵⁵/
/lei¹¹/
Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/ /nəi²¹/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹³/ /lui²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁴⁴/ /lui⁵³/
Taoyuan /lui⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/ /løy²²/
Nanning /lui²⁴/ /lui²²/
Hong Kong /løy²²/ /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/ /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly²⁴/ /ly⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui²¹³/ /lui³³/

AdjectiveEdit

  1. continuous, repeated

VerbEdit

  1. to accumulate

Etymology 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ru>nu) (hangeul >, revised ru>nu, McCune-Reischauer ru>nu, Yale lwu>nwu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(luỵ, lủi, luỹ, mệt, luy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.