U+7D2F, 累
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D2F

[U+7D2E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D30]
U+F94F, 累
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F94F

[U+F94E]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F950]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 120 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田女戈火 (WVIF), four-corner 60903, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 919, character 35
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1351, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3381, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7D2F

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*roːl, *roːls
*roːl
*roːl
*roːl, *rul
*roːl, *rul
*roːlʔ
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːl
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːl, *ruːls
*ruːll, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls
*ruːl, *rul, *ruls
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ
*ruːl, *ruːlʔ
*ruːl
*ruːl
*ruːl, *rulʔ
*ruːl
*ruːlʔ
*ruːlʔ
*ruːlʔ
*ruːls, *rolʔ, *rols
*ruːls, *rul
*rolʔ, *rul
*rul, *rulʔ
*rul
*rul, *ruls
*rul
*rul
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ
*rulʔ

Simplified from ().

Folk etymology considers this character as an ideographic compound representing the tiredness after work. In ancient China, men were working in the field () while women sewed ().

EtymologyEdit

Various semantic fields can be distinguished:

“to add; to accumulate”
Related to (OC *rulʔ, “rampart; to build by piling rocks”), (OC *rolʔ), (OC *rolʔ) (Wang, 1982).
“to damage; exhausted; tired”
Related to (OC *ruːls, *rul, “tired”), (OC *ruːl, *ruːlʔ, *ruːls, “to injure”) (Schuessler, 2007). It can be compared with Khmer រួយ (ruŏy, tired; exhausted), Mizo rawih (weak; worn out; broken down), Tibetan རུལ (rul, to decay; to rot), འབྲུལ ('brul, to fall; to come out), ཧྲུལ་པོ (hrul po, torn; ragged), སྲུལ (srul, (archaic) to rot; to decompose) (ibid.).
“to bind; to wind around”
See (OC *rul, *ruls).

Pronunciation 1Edit

trad. /
simp.


  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 累 (積)
Mandarin Beijing /lei²¹⁴/
Harbin /lei²¹³/
Tianjin /lei¹³/
Jinan /luei⁵⁵/
Qingdao /le⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /luei⁵³/
Xi'an /luei⁵³/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei⁵³/
Lanzhou /luei⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /luei⁵¹/
Wuhan /nei⁴²/
Chengdu /nuei⁵³/
Guiyang /nuei⁴²/
Kunming /luei⁵³/
Nanjing /luəi²¹²/
Hefei /le²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁵³/
Pingyao /luei⁵³/
Hohhot /luei⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /le²³/
Suzhou /le̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /lei⁵³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/
Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁴⁴/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/
Nanning /lui²⁴/
Hong Kong /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (12)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liuᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/lʷiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljuɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/liueX/
Wang
Li
/lǐweX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lwie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lěi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lěi
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljweX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ojʔ/
English accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 7733
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rolʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to pile up; to heap up; to mount up; to accumulate
  2. repeated; numerous; unremitting; continuous; persistent
  3. to repeat; to replicate; to overlap
  4. to add (to); to increase; to grow
  5. to amount (to); to sum up (to)
  6. Alternative form of (“ancient weight unit”).
  7. Alternative form of (luǒ, “bare; naked”).
  8. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit

trad. /
simp.

Note:
  • “To implicate”, “burden” and “to damage”:
    • lěi (Mainland standard, Taiwan variant);
    • lèi (Taiwan standard).
  • 累贅:
    • léi (Mainland standard, Taiwan variant);
    • lěi (Taiwan standard).
  • All other senses:
    • lèi.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 累 (連)
Mandarin Beijing /lei⁵¹/
Harbin /lei⁵³/
Tianjin /lei⁵³/
Jinan /luei²¹/
Qingdao /le⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luei³¹²/
Xi'an /luei⁰/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei¹³/
Lanzhou /luei¹³/
Ürümqi /luei²¹³/
Wuhan /nei³⁵/
Chengdu /nuei¹³/
Guiyang /nuei²¹³/
Kunming /luei²¹²/
Nanjing /luəi⁴⁴/
Hefei /le⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁴⁵/
Pingyao /luei³⁵/
Hohhot /luei⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /le²³/
Suzhou /le̞³¹/
Hangzhou /lei¹³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le²²/
Tunxi /li¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lei⁵⁵/
/lei¹¹/
Xiangtan /nəi²¹/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁵³/
Taoyuan /lui⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²²/
Nanning /lui²²/
Hong Kong /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (37)
Final () (12)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liuᴇH/
Pan
Wuyun
/lʷiɛH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljuɛH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lwiə̆H/
Li
Rong
/liueH/
Wang
Li
/lǐweH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lwie̯H/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lèi
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 7735
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rols/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to involve; to implicate; to embroil; to entangle; to hinder
  2. burden; tribulation; affliction; problem
  3. to damage; to hurt; to do harm to; to stain; to sully
  4. to entrust; to delegate; to devolve
  5. to cause trouble to; to trouble (someone)
  6. suffering; misery; harm; disaster
  7. fault; crime; slip; defect
  8. to strain; to wear out; to overwork; to overtax
  9. tired; weary; fatigued; exhausted
    •   ―  Wǒ hěn lèi.  ―  I'm tired.
  10. (of work) hard; tiring; hardworking
  11. verbose; long-winded; unnecessary; superfluous
  12. wife and children; one's family
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of (“tired”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 疲倦疲乏疲累疲憊
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 𤸁
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 𤸁
Liudui (S. Sixian) 𤸁
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu) 𤸁
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen 𤺪
Quanzhou 𤺪
Zhangzhou 𤺪
Taipei 𤺪
Wu Suzhou 吃力
Wenzhou 吃力
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng 鶴累

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“rope; to tie; bull in mating season”).
(This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
Notes:

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

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ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ru>nu) (hangeul >, revised ru>nu, McCune-Reischauer ru>nu, Yale lwu>nwu)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(luỵ, lủi, luỹ, mệt, luy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.