See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
累-bw.png

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲):  + .

Simplified from ()

A popular theory consider this character as an ideogramic compound representing the tiredness after work. In ancient China, men were working in the field while women worked in silk farming . This is a mnemonic and not the etymology.

Han characterEdit

(radical 120 +5, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田女戈火 (WVIF), four-corner 60903, composition)

  1. tired
  2. implicate, involve
  3. bother

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 919, character 35
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1351, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3381, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+7D2F
  • McNaughton, William (2005) Reading & Writing Chinese: Simplified Character Edition, 2nd Edition edition, Tuttle, ISBN 978-0804835091, page 10

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 累 (積) 累 (連)
Mandarin Beijing /lei²¹⁴/ /lei⁵¹/
Harbin /lei²¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Tianjin /lei¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Jinan /luei⁵⁵/ /luei²¹/
Qingdao /le⁵⁵/ /le⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luei⁵³/ /luei³¹²/
Xi'an /luei⁵³/ /luei⁰/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/ /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei⁵³/ /luei¹³/
Lanzhou /luei⁴⁴²/ /luei¹³/
Ürümqi /luei⁵¹/ /luei²¹³/
Wuhan /nei⁴²/ /nei³⁵/
Chengdu /nuei⁵³/ /nuei¹³/
Guiyang /nuei⁴²/ /nuei²¹³/
Kunming /luei⁵³/ /luei²¹²/
Nanjing /luəi²¹²/ /luəi⁴⁴/
Hefei /le²⁴/ /le⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁵³/ /luei⁴⁵/
Pingyao /luei⁵³/ /luei³⁵/
Hohhot /luei⁵³/ /luei⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /le¹³/ /le¹³/
Suzhou /le̞⁵¹/ /le̞³¹/
Hangzhou /lei⁵³/ /lei¹³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/ /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le³⁵/ /le²²/
Tunxi /li¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/ /lei⁵⁵/
/lei¹¹/
Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/ /nəi²¹/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹³/ /lui²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁴⁴/ /lui⁵³/
Taoyuan /lui⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/ /løy²²/
Nanning /lui²⁴/ /lui²²/
Hong Kong /løy²²/ /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/ /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly²⁴/ /ly⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui²¹³/ /lui³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (37)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/liuᴇX/ /lwie̯X/ /liueX/ /lʷiɛX/ /lwiə̆X/ /lǐweX/ /ljuɛX/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (37)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/liuᴇH/ /lwie̯H/ /liueH/ /lʷiɛH/ /lwiə̆H/ /lǐweH/ /ljuɛH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
lěi ‹ ljwe › /*[r]oj/ rope (to tie s.o. up)
lěi ‹ ljweX › /*[r]ojʔ/ accumulate

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
7727 2 /*ruːls/
7733 3 /*rolʔ/ 同絫
7735 3 /*rols/

AdjectiveEdit

  1. tired, weary
  2. (of work) hard; tiring
SynonymsEdit

VerbEdit

  1. to strain, to wear out

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit

Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location 累 (積) 累 (連)
Mandarin Beijing /lei²¹⁴/ /lei⁵¹/
Harbin /lei²¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Tianjin /lei¹³/ /lei⁵³/
Jinan /luei⁵⁵/ /luei²¹/
Qingdao /le⁵⁵/ /le⁴²/
Zhengzhou /luei⁵³/ /luei³¹²/
Xi'an /luei⁵³/ /luei⁰/
Xining /luɨ⁵³/ /luɨ⁵³/
Yinchuan /luei⁵³/ /luei¹³/
Lanzhou /luei⁴⁴²/ /luei¹³/
Ürümqi /luei⁵¹/ /luei²¹³/
Wuhan /nei⁴²/ /nei³⁵/
Chengdu /nuei⁵³/ /nuei¹³/
Guiyang /nuei⁴²/ /nuei²¹³/
Kunming /luei⁵³/ /luei²¹²/
Nanjing /luəi²¹²/ /luəi⁴⁴/
Hefei /le²⁴/ /le⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /luei⁵³/ /luei⁴⁵/
Pingyao /luei⁵³/ /luei³⁵/
Hohhot /luei⁵³/ /luei⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /le¹³/ /le¹³/
Suzhou /le̞⁵¹/ /le̞³¹/
Hangzhou /lei⁵³/ /lei¹³/
Wenzhou /lai³⁵/ /lai³⁵/
Hui Shexian /le³⁵/ /le²²/
Tunxi /li¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lei⁴¹/ /lei⁵⁵/
/lei¹¹/
Xiangtan /nəi⁴²/ /nəi²¹/
Gan Nanchang /lui²¹³/ /lui²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lui⁴⁴/ /lui⁵³/
Taoyuan /lui⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /løy²³/ /løy²²/
Nanning /lui²⁴/ /lui²²/
Hong Kong /løy²²/ /løy²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /luɔi²⁴²/ /luɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ly²⁴/ /ly⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lui⁵³/ /lui³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lui²¹³/ /lui³³/

AdjectiveEdit

  1. continuous, repeated

VerbEdit

  1. to accumulate

Etymology 3Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the simplified form of .)
Notes:

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ru, nu) (hangeul , , revised ru, nu, McCune-Reischauer ru, nu, Yale lwu, nwu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(luỵ, lủi, luỹ, mệt, luy)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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