Contents

ChineseEdit

day; sky; heaven (surname)
simp. and trad.
(天竺)
alt. forms 身毒

EtymologyEdit

First recorded use in the Traditions of the Western Regions (西域傳) portion of the Book of Han, finished in 111 CE. Itself a transcription of Old Persian *Hind-uka - hypocoristic of *Hinduš ("people living beyond the Indus").

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 2/3
Initial () (6) (9)
Final () (85) (4)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () IV III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰen/ /ʈɨuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰen/ /ʈiuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɛn/ /ȶiuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰɛn/ /ʈuwk̚/
Li
Rong
/tʰen/ /ȶiuk̚/
Wang
Li
/tʰien/ /ȶĭuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰien/ /ȶi̯uk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tiān zhu
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tiān xiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ then › ‹ xen ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˤi[n]/ /*l̥ˤi[n]/ (W dialect: l̥ˤ- > Hàn-time *xˤ- > MC x-)
English heaven heaven

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 3/3
No. 12387 17589
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰl'iːn/ /*tuɡ/
Notes hinduka

Proper nounEdit

天竺

  1. (archaic) India or Nepal

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
てん
Grade: 1
じく
Jinmeiyō
on'yomi

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

/tendiku//tenziku/

From Middle Chinese 天竺 ‎(*ten *djiuk?), a transcription from either of the following:

First mentioned in the 後漢書 ‎(Gokansho, Book of the Later Han), in volume 88, the 西域伝 ‎(Saiiki Den, Treatise on the Western Regions).

Proper nounEdit

天竺 ‎(hiragana てんじく, romaji Tenjiku, historical hiragana てんぢく)

  1. (archaic) India
SynonymsEdit

PrefixEdit

天竺 ‎(hiragana てんじく, romaji Tenjiku, historical hiragana てんぢく)

  1. foreign or exotic
  2. overly spicy or hot
Usage notesEdit

The prefix senses appear to have arisen after European traders arrived in Japan, by way of India.[3]

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

By extension from the character (“sky, heavens”), and possibly by association with the Himalayas.

NounEdit

天竺 ‎(hiragana てんじく, romaji tenjiku)

  1. the sky, the heavens
  2. a high place, the top of something, a summit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
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