U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 18 +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔslel, *ʔslenʔ
*ʔslen, *ʔslens
*ʔslen, *ʔslens, *ʔsleːn, *zleːn
*ʔslen, *ʔslenʔ, *ʔslens
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslens
*ʔslens
*zleːn
*zleːn
*zleːn

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意): (foot) + (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward. In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chêng - vernacular;
  • chiân - literary;
  • chûn - borrowed.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
/t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
/t͡ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
/t͡siŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
/tai³¹/
/tun³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zen/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zen/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zɛn/
Li
Rong
/d͡zen/
Wang
Li
/d͡zien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qián
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]ˤen/ (~ *m-dzˤen)
English before

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10256
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zleːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. front
    Antonyms: (hòu)
  2. past
  3. former
  4. preceding
  5. forward
  6. future
  7. first
  8. battlefront

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. in front
  2. before

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
まえ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (he, direction, -wards).[1][2]

/mape/ > /maɸe/ > /mawe/ > /mae/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana まえ, romaji mae, historical hiragana まへ)

  1. the front
  2. the past

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana まえ, romaji -mae)

  1. a portion, an amount
    六人 (ろくにん) (まえ)御膳 (ごぜん)
    rokunin-mae no gozen
    a banquet for six people

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Cognate with (saki, a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water).[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana さき, romaji saki)

  1. Alternative spelling of the tip of something; ahead, in front; before, earlier, the past; afterwards, the future; the destination of a motion or action
Usage notesEdit

This sense is much more commonly spelled . See that entry for more details.

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle Chinese (dzen). Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji -zen)

  1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
  2. counter for kami and shrines

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji zen-)

  1. the last, the previous
  2. pre- (of an era)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan'yōon

Contraction of 御前 (ごぜ)(goze), itself a contraction of 御前 (ごぜん)(gozen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji -ze)

  1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
     (あま) ()
    ama-ze
    (honorable) nun

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(jeon) (hangeul , revised jeon, McCune-Reischauer chŏn)

  1. front (direction)
  2. before

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tiền, tèn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.