Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D
Code point U+524D
Entity number 前
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524C] [U+524E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
前-bw.png

Han characterEdit

(radical 18 +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Ideogram (指事) – relatively complex, a boat (, now simplified to ) headed forwards, onward (the top was originally , now simplified to ).

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
/t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
/t͡ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi¹³/
Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
/t͡siŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
/tai³¹/
/tun³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (15)
Final: (85)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: qián
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zen/ /d͡zen/ /d͡zɛn/ /d͡zɛn/ /d͡zen/ /d͡zien/ /d͡zʱien/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
qián ‹ dzen › /*[dz]ˤen (~ *m-dzˤen)/ before

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
10256 2 /*zleːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. front
    Antonyms: (hòu)
  2. past
  3. former
  4. preceding
  5. forward
  6. future
  7. first
  8. battlefront

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is an ancient form of .)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. in front
  2. before

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
まえ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese as a compound of ‎(ma, eye) +‎ ‎(he, direction, -wards).[1][2]

/mape/ > /maɸe/ > /mawe/ > /mae/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana まえ, romaji mae, historical hiragana まへ)

  1. the front
  2. the past

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana まえ, romaji -mae)

  1. a portion, an amount
    六人 (ろくにん) (まえ)御膳 (ごぜん)
    rokunin-mae no gozen
    a banquet for six people

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Cognate with ‎(saki, a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water).[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana さき, romaji saki)

  1. Alternative spelling of the tip of something; ahead, in front; before, earlier, the past; afterwards, the future; the destination of a motion or action
Usage notesEdit

This sense is much more commonly spelled . See that entry for more details.

Etymology 3Edit

From Middle Chinese ‎(dzen). Compare modern Mandarin ‎(qián).

PronunciationEdit

CounterEdit

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji -zen)

  1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
  2. counter for kami and shrines

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana ぜん, romaji zen-)

  1. the last, the previous
  2. pre- (of an era)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan'yōon

Contraction of 御前 (ごぜ) ‎(goze), itself a contraction of 御前 (ごぜん) ‎(gozen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji -ze)

  1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
     (あま) ()
    ama-ze
    (honorable) nun

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(jeon) (hangeul , revised jeon, McCune-Reischauer chŏn)

  1. front (direction)
  2. before

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tiền, tèn)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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