U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 18, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意): (foot) + (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward.

In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

𠝣
𣥑
𣦃

Unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sèng - vernacular;
  • cièng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chêng/chûiⁿ/châiⁿ - vernacular;
    • chiân - literary;
    • chûn - vernacular (limited, e.g. 前年);
    • chân - vernacular (limited).
    Note:
    • zoin5 - Chaozhou, Shantou;
    • zain5 - Jieyang, Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
    /t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
    /t͡ɕie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
    Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ji³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
    /t͡siŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
    /tai³¹/
    /tun³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zen/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    cin4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[dz]ˁen/ (~ *m-dzˁen)
    English before

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10256
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*zleːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. front; forepart
        ―  qiánfāng  ―  the front
      /   ―  qiánmén  ―  front door
        ―  qiánzòu  ―  prelude
      Antonym: (hòu)
    2. ago; before
        ―  qián  ―  previously; ago
        ―  wǔ tiān qián  ―  five days ago
      時代 / 时代  ―  shǐqián shídài  ―  prehistoric times
    3. past; previous; former; earlier
        ―  qiánrèn  ―  predecessor
      功盡棄 / 功尽弃  ―  qiángōngjìnqì  ―  all the previous effort is wasted
      /   ―  qiánhàn  ―  the Former (Western) Han
    4. top; foremost; leading
        ―  qián sān míng  ―  top three
    5. future; time ahead
        ―  qiánchéng  ―  future; prospects
    6. to move forward
      勇往直  ―  yǒngwǎngzhíqián  ―  to advance bravely
    7. A surname​.

    Usage notesEdit

    may refer to either the past or the future depending on one's perspective that is often implied by the context idiomatically. The set phrase 前天 (qiántiān) specifically refers to the day before yesterday.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ぜん) (zen)
    • Korean: (, jeon)
    • Vietnamese: tiền ()

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cut”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. in front
    2. before

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まえ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (pe1, direction, -wards).[1][2]

    /mape1//maɸe//mawe//maje//mae/

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (まえ) (maeまへ (mafe)?

    1. the front
      (まえ)(すす)
      mae e susumu
      to advance forwards
      (literally, “to advance towards the front”)
      Antonym: 後ろ (ushiro)
    2. the past
      (まえ)から()になってたんだけど []
      mae kara ki ni natteta n da kedo []
      I've been thinking about it for a while, but []
      ずっと(まえ)からそう(おも)ってた
      zutto mae kara sō omotteta
      I've thought that for ages
      (literally, “I've been thinking that way since forever ago”)
      (まえ)にも()よう
      mae ni mo itta yō ni
      as I've said before
      (literally, “just as I have said in the past”)
      Antonym: (ato)
    3. previous
      (まえ)()()
      mae no kiji
      previous entries
      Antonym: (tsugi)

    SuffixEdit

    (まえ) (-mae

    1. a portion, an amount
      (ろく)(にん)(まえ)()(ぜん)
      rokunin-mae no go-zen
      a banquet for six people

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さき
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    さき1
    [noun] before, previous
    [noun] end, tip
    [noun] earlier, the past
    [noun] afterwards, the future
    [noun] the destination of a motion or action
    [noun] sequel
    [noun] ahead, in front
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぜん
    Grade: 2
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zen). Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (ぜん) (-zen

    1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
    2. counter for kami and shrines

    PrefixEdit

    (ぜん) (zen-

    1. the last, the previous
    2. pre- (of an era)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’yōon

    Contraction of ()() (goze), itself a contraction of ()(ぜん) (go-zen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    () (-ze

    1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
      (あま)()
      ama-ze
      (honorable) nun

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zen).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: ccyèn)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] (Yale: àlp) (Yale: cyèn)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ap jeon))

    1. Hanja form? of (front; before). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (ex-; previous). [prefix]

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: tiền, tèn

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