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U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 18, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ʔslel, *ʔslenʔ
*ʔslen, *ʔslens
*ʔslen, *ʔslens, *ʔsleːn, *zleːn
*ʔslen, *ʔslenʔ, *ʔslens
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslenʔ
*ʔslens
*ʔslens
*zleːn
*zleːn
*zleːn

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (foot) +  (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward. In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sèng - vernacular;
  • cièng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chêng/chûiⁿ/châiⁿ - vernacular;
    • chiân - literary;
    • chûn - vernacular (limited, e.g. 前年);
    • chân - vernacular (limited).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
    /t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
    /t͡ɕie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
    Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ji³¹/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sian³⁵/
    /t͡siŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin³¹/
    /tai³¹/
    /tun³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (15)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡zen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡zen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡zɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡zɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡zen/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡zien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡zʱien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dzen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[dz]ˤen/ (~ *m-dzˤen)
    English before

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10256
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*zleːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. front; forepart
      Antonyms: (hòu)
    2. past
    3. former; previous; last
    4. preceding
    5. future; time ahead
    6. first; top
    7. battlefront
    8. to move forward
    9. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cut”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. in front
    2. before

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まえ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (he, direction, -wards).[1][2]

    /mape/ > /maɸe/ > /mawe/ > /mae/

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana まえ, rōmaji mae, historical hiragana まへ)

    1. the front
    2. the past

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana まえ, rōmaji -mae)

    1. a portion, an amount
      六人 (ろくにん) (まえ) () (ぜん)
      rokunin-mae no gozen
      a banquet for six people

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さき
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Cognate with (saki, a (geographical) point, where the land sticks out into the water).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana さき, rōmaji saki)

    1. Alternative spelling of the tip of something; ahead, in front; before, earlier, the past; afterwards, the future; the destination of a motion or action
    Usage notesEdit

    This sense is much more commonly spelled . See that entry for more details.

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Middle Chinese (dzen). Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (hiragana ぜん, rōmaji -zen)

    1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
    2. counter for kami and shrines

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana ぜん, rōmaji zen-)

    1. the last, the previous
    2. pre- (of an era)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kan’yōon

    Contraction of  () () (goze), itself a contraction of  () (ぜん) (gozen), an honorific form of address.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji -ze)

    1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
       (あま) ()
      ama-ze
      (honorable) nun

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (jeon) (hangeul , revised jeon, McCune–Reischauer chŏn)

    1. front (direction)
    2. before

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (tiền, tèn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.