U+524D, 前
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-524D

[U+524C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+524E]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 18, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿月中弓 (TBLN), four-corner 80221, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 140, character 15
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2011
  • Dae Jaweon: page 318, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 248, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+524D

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Originally , an ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (foot) + (boat) – a foot on a boat moving forward. Alternatively, represents a shoe (cf. Shuowen : 舟象履形) — a foot with a shoe on to walk forward.

In the current form, is simplified to and to . The current form with an additional (“knife”) is the original form of (OC *ʔslenʔ, “to cut”).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

𠝣
𣥑
𣦃

Unknown (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • sèng - vernacular;
  • cièng - literary.
Note:
  • chêng/chûiⁿ/châiⁿ - vernacular;
  • chiân - literary;
  • chûn - vernacular (limited, e.g. 前年 (qiánnián));
  • chân - vernacular (limited).
Note:
  • zoin5 - Chaozhou, Shantou;
  • zain5 - Jieyang, Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian³⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰian²⁴/ ~天
/t͡ɕʰian²¹³/ 跟~兒
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁵/
Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã⁴²/
Qingdao /t͡sʰiã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian⁴²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕʰiã²⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁵³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian³¹/
Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /t͡sʰien²⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
/t͡ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ʑi²³/
Suzhou /ziɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡ʑd͡ʑiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /t͡siẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /d͡ziẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Taoyuan /t͡sʰien¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰin²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰin²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /t͡sian³⁵/
/t͡siŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /t͡sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sʰiŋ³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡sõi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /sin³¹/
/tai³¹/
/tun³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (15)
Final () (85)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter dzen
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zen/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zen/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zɛn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zɛn/
Li
Rong
/d͡zen/
Wang
Li
/d͡zien/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱien/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qián
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cin4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qián
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]ˁen/ (~ *m-dzˁen)
English before

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10256
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zleːn/

Definitions edit

  1. front; forepart
      ―  qiánfāng  ―  the front
      ―  qiánmén  ―  front door
      ―  wǎng qián zǒu  ―  to move forward
    房子 [MSC, trad.]
    房子 [MSC, simp.]
    Fángzi qián yǒu yī kē shù. [Pinyin]
    There is a tree in front of the house.
    Antonym: (hòu)
  2. ago; before
      ―  qián  ―  previously; ago
      ―  qián jǐ tiān  ―  the other day
    時代时代  ―  shǐqián shídài  ―  prehistoric times
    習慣吃飯喝湯 [MSC, trad.]
    习惯吃饭喝汤 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ xíguàn chīfàn qián xiān hētāng. [Pinyin]
    I'm used to having soup before my meal.
  3. past; previous; former; earlier
      ―  qiánrèn  ―  predecessor
    副總統副总统  ―  qián fùzǒngtǒng  ―  ex-vice president
    功盡棄功尽弃  ―  qiángōngjìnqì  ―  all the previous effort is wasted
      ―  qiánhàn  ―  the Former (Western) Han
  4. top; foremost; leading
      ―  qián sān míng  ―  top three
  5. future; time ahead
      ―  qiánchéng  ―  future; prospects
  6. to move forward
    勇往直  ―  yǒngwǎngzhíqián  ―  to advance bravely
  7. a surname

Usage notes edit

(qián) may refer to either the past or the future depending on one's perspective that is often implied by the context idiomatically. The set phrase 前天 (qiántiān) specifically refers to the day before yesterday.

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ぜん) (zen)
  • Korean: 전(前) (jeon)
  • Vietnamese: tiền ()

Etymology 2 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to cut”).
(This character is an ancient form of ).

References edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2]

前󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
前󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. in front
  2. before

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
まえ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese as a compound of (ma, eye) +‎ (pe1, direction, -wards).[3][4] Ultimately from Proto-Japonic *mapia.

/mape1//maɸe//mawe//maje//mae/

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(まえ) (maeまへ (mafe)?

  1. the front
    Antonym: 後ろ (ushiro)
    (まえ)(すす)
    mae e susumu
    to advance forwards
    (literally, “to advance towards the front”)
  2. the past
    Antonym: (ato)
    (まえ)にも()よう
    mae ni mo itta yō ni
    as I've said before
    (literally, “just as I have said in the past”)
    • 1934, Torahiko Terada, ゴルフ随行記
      ずっと(まえ)からM君(Mくん)にゴルフの仲間入(なかまい)りをすすめられ、多少(たしょう)誘惑(ゆうわく)(かん)じているが、今日(きょう)までのところでは頑強(がんきょう)抵抗(ていこう)して()(こと)()かないでいる。
      Zutto mae kara Mkun ni gorufu no nakama iri o susumerare, tashō no yūwaku wa kanji te iru ga, kyō made no tokoro deha gankyō ni teikō shite iu koto o kika nai de iru.
      M has invited me to join his golfing group for long, and I feel attracted to some extent, but I firmly rejected his invitation and remained unconvinced so far.
  3. previous
    Antonym: (tsugi)
    (まえ)()()
    mae no kiji
    previous entries

Suffix edit

(まえ) (-mae

  1. a portion, an amount
    (ろく)(にん)(まえ)()(ぜん)
    rokunin-mae no go-zen
    a banquet for six people
  2. ago
    (さん)(ねん)(まえ)
    sannenmae
    three years ago
    ずっと(まえ)からそう(おも)ってた
    zutto mae kara sō omotteta
    I've thought that for ages
    (literally, “I've been thinking that way since forever ago”)
  3. makes place names that refer to the vicinity of a point of interest
    ()(やく)(しょ)(まえ)
    Shiyakusho-mae
    near the city hall

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
さき
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
さき1
[noun] before, previous
[noun] end, tip
[noun] earlier, the past
[noun] afterwards, the future
[noun] the destination of a motion or action
[noun] sequel
[noun] ahead, in front
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
ぜん
Grade: 2
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC dzen). Compare modern Mandarin (qián).

Pronunciation edit

Counter edit

(ぜん) (-zen

  1. counter for irregularly shaped objects such as desks, armrests, and serving trays
  2. counter for kami and shrines

Prefix edit

(ぜん) (zen-

  1. the last, the previous
  2. pre- (of an era)

Suffix edit

(ぜん) (-zen

  1. (archaic) ago
    • 1924, Mimei Ogawa, “海の彼方”, in ある夜の星だち[2]:
      まさしく、三年(さんねん)(ぜん)()くしたおじいさんのくれたバイオリンでありました。
      Masashiku, sannenzen ni nakushita ojīsan no kureta baiorin de arimashita.
      It was truly the violin that he had lost three years ago, that the old man had given to him.
  2. (archaic) before
    • 1919, Susukida Kyūkin, “地獄の住人”, in 新茶話[3]:
      今度(こんど)戦争(せんそう)(ぜん)、このロイド・ジョウジ()田舎(いなか)()って政治演説(せいじえんぜつ)をしていた(こと)があった。
      Kondo no sensōzen, kono roido jōji shi ga inaka e itte seiji enzetsu o shiteita koto ga atta.
      Before this war, the forementioned Mr Lloyd George went to the countryside and gave a political speech.

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan’yōon

Contraction of ()() (goze), itself a contraction of ()(ぜん) (go-zen), an honorific form of address.[3][4]

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

() (-ze

  1. (rare) an honorific suffix added to a noun denoting a person
    (あま)()
    ama-ze
    (honorable) nun

References edit

  1. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 301 (paper), page 200 (digital)
  2. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 223 (paper), page 123 (digital)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  6. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC dzen).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: ccyèn)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] (Yale: àlp) (Yale: cyèn)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (ap jeon))

  1. Hanja form? of (front; before). [noun]
  2. Hanja form? of (ex-; previous). [prefix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: tiền, tèn

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