Open main menu
See also: , , , , , and
U+5929, 天
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5929

[U+5928]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+592A]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 37, +1, 4 strokes, cangjie input 一大 (MK), four-corner 10430, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 248, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5833
  • Dae Jaweon: page 500, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 522, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5929

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠀘
𠀡
𠀑
 
The sky over Guangdong.
 
The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvests in Beijing's Temple of Heaven.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • Tian (English)

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*tʰiːm
*l̥ʰiːmʔ, *l̥ʰiːms
*tʰiːmʔ
*l̥ʰiːmʔ
*diːm
*qʰl'iːn
*qʰl'iːn, *qʰl'ɯːn
*qʰliːn
*zluːm, *hl'iːnʔ

A top line representing the level above a man with outstretched arms ( ()). Ancient representations of the character depicted a man with a large head, an anthropomorphic representation of heaven.

Original meaning of the word is “sky”. Such concept is difficult to depict with a pictogram, hence the current form. Perhaps influenced by the glyph, the character was frequently glossed in Old Chinese documents with (“crown of the head”), and such had led to incorrect hypotheses which regarded (tiān) as a derivation of or , “top (of the head/hill)”.

EtymologyEdit

This character was previously reconstructed to have a /*tʰ/-initial in Old Chinese, but this hypothesis has been largely discounted in recent reconstructions, in light of evidence from early Chinese accounts of dialectal pronunciations, transcription of other languages, as well as cognate/derived characters within Chinese, which has all pointed to a voiceless resonant initial /*l̥-/ in Old Chinese. The book Shiming showed that, by c. 200 CE, this initial had already produced dialectal variation in the pronunciation: People in central-western China pronounced it with the back of the tongue, like (MC henX), while people in eastern China pronounced it with the tip of the tongue, like (MC tʰɑnX). An old northwestern dialect variant survives as (MC hen, “God of the Zoroastrians”), and the word 天竺 (MC tʰen ʈɨuk̚, “India”) was used to transcribe Old Persian *Hind-uka ("India").

Further etymology is unknown. While it was reconstructed with a /*tʰ-/ initial, it was frequently compared with tengri, the name for God in early Turkic and Mongolic peoples' languages. This now appears unlikely. The only certain external cognate is the Central Bai (a language closely related to Chinese) word heinl (sky, heaven) /xẽ⁵⁵/.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • thiⁿ - vernacular;
  • thian - literary.
Note:
  • tin1 - vernacular;
  • tiêng1/tiang1 - literary (tiêng1 - Chaozhou).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (6)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tʰen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tʰen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tʰɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /tʰɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /tʰen/
    Wang
    Li
    /tʰien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tʰien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    tiān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    tiān xiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ then › ‹ xen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l̥ˁi[n]/ /*l̥ˁi[n]/ (W dialect: l̥ˁ- > Hàn-time *xˁ- > MC x-)
    English heaven heaven

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12387
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰl'iːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. sky; heavens; heavenly; celestial
      •   ―  tiānkōng  ―  sky
        ―  Tiān hēi le.  ―  It's getting dark.
    2. (mythology or religion) heaven as the abode of the gods or the blessed departed; heavenly.
      •   ―  shàngtiān  ―  to go up to the sky; to go to heaven
      •   ―  tiān  ―  Heaven's will
    3. (mythology or religion) Heaven as an impersonal deity, often translated as God.
      •   ―  tiānzhǔ  ―  God
      •   ―  lǎotiān  ―  god
      •   ―  Wǒ de tiān a!  ―  Oh my God!
      •   ―  Tiān zhù zì zhù zhě.  ―  God helps those who help themselves.
    4. top; overhead
      • /   ―  tiānqiáo  ―  footbridge
      •   ―  tiānchuāng  ―  sunroof
    5. weather; climate
    6. day (24 hours)
        ―  jīntiān  ―  today
        ―  míngtiān  ―  tomorrow
        ―  sān tiān  ―  three days
    7. day (as opposed to night)
        ―  báitiān  ―  daytime
    8. season
    9. nature
    10. natural; innate
      •   ―  tiānshēng  ―  innate
      •   ―  tiānxìng  ―  nature, personality
      •   ―  tiāncái  ―  genius

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 天氣 (“weather”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 天氣
    Mandarin Beijing 天兒, 天氣
    Taiwan 天氣
    Harbin 天氣,
    Shenyang 天頭
    Hailar 天氣
    Ulanhot 天頭
    Tongliao 天頭
    Chifeng 天氣
    Bayanhot 天氣
    Jinan 天兒, 天氣
    Muping 天氣
    Luoyang 天氣
    Wanrong 天氣
    Xi'an 天氣
    Qingdao 天兒
    Zhengzhou 天氣
    Xining 天氣兒, 天氣
    Xuzhou
    Yinchuan 天氣
    Lanzhou 天氣
    Ürümqi 天氣,
    Wuhan 天道, 天氣
    Huanggang 天頭
    Chengdu 天氣
    Guiyang 天氣
    Liuzhou 天氣, 天時
    Kunming 天氣
    Yangzhou , 天氣
    Nanjing , 天氣
    Hefei 天氣
    Cantonese Guangzhou 天氣, 天時, 天候
    Hong Kong 天氣, 天時, 天候
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 天候, 天時
    Foshan 天時
    Shunde 天氣
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 天時
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 天時
    Taishan 天時, 天氣
    Kaiping (Chikan) 天時
    Dongguan 天時, 天氣
    Shaoguan 天時
    Yunfu 天氣
    Yangjiang 天時, 天氣
    Xinyi 天氣
    Lianjiang 天氣
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 天時, 天氣
    Ho Chi Minh City 天時
    Gan Nanchang 天氣, 天色
    Lichuan 天氣, 天頭
    Pingxiang , 天氣
    Hakka Meixian 天氣, 天色, 天時
    Xingning 天時
    Huidong (Daling) 天時
    Qujiang 天時
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 天時
    Changting 天時
    Pingyu 天時
    Wuping 天時
    Liancheng 天時
    Yudu 天氣
    Ruijin 天氣
    Shicheng 天頭
    Shangyou 天色
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 天時, 天氣
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 天時, 天氣
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 天時, 天氣
    Dongshi (Dabu) 天時, 天氣
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 天時, 天氣
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 天氣
    Hong Kong 天時
    Sabah 天時
    Senai 天時
    Singkawang 天時, 天氣
    Huizhou Jixi 天公
    Jin Taiyuan 天氣,
    Xinzhou 天氣
    Baochang 天氣
    Jining 天氣
    Hohhot 氣候
    Baotou 天氣
    Dongsheng 天氣
    Linhe 天氣
    Haibowan 天氣
    Min Bei Jian'ou 天氣, 天時
    Min Dong Fuzhou 天氣, 天時
    Fuqing 天氣
    Matsu 天氣
    Min Nan Xiamen 天時, 天氣
    Quanzhou 天時, 天氣
    Zhangzhou 天時, 天氣
    Chaozhou 天時, 天氣
    Haifeng 天時
    Johor Bahru 天時
    Wenchang 天氣
    Haikou 天時
    Puxian Min Putian 天時
    Xianyou 天時
    Pinghua Nanning 天氣
    Shehua Fu'an 天性
    Fuding 天氣
    Luoyuan 天性
    Sanming 天氣
    Shunchang 天氣
    Hua'an 天氣
    Wu Shanghai 天氣
    Suzhou 天氣,
    Hangzhou 天空
    Wenzhou 天色, 天時
    Chongming 天色
    Danyang 天氣, 天光
    Jinhua 天公, 天氣
    Ningbo 天價
    Xiang Changsha 天色, 天氣
    Shuangfeng 天氣
    Loudi 天色
    Dialectal synonyms of (“day (24 hours)”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Taishan
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Dong Fuzhou ,
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei ,
    Kaohsiung ,
    Tainan ,
    Taichung ,
    Hsinchu ,
    Lukang ,
    Sanxia ,
    Yilan ,
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Wu Shanghai ,
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. heavens, sky

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. A bound form only appearing in compounds.[1][2] Compare the formation of (ma, bound form in compounds) and (me, standalone form), (ta, bound form in compounds) and (te, standalone form).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あま, rōmaji ama)

    1. (archaic) the sky, the heavens
    2. the area above a kitchen stove:
      1. where the smoke collects in an old kitchen using a wood-burning stove
      2. a shelf or shelves above the stove
    3. (archaic) heaven
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あめ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ame2 → */aməj//ame/

    From Old Japanese as a sound shift from ama above.[1] Likely derived by fusion of ama + (i, emphatic nominative particle), similar to the derivation of other words such as (kami, from kamu + i), (me, from ma + i), etc.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あめ, rōmaji ame)

    1. (archaic) the sky, the heavens
    2. (archaic) heaven
    3. (archaic) the roof of a palace
    IdiomsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    てん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC tʰen, “sky; heavens”). Compare modern Mandarin reading tiān.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana てん, rōmaji ten)

    1. the sky, the heavens
    2. heaven
    3. (metaphorically) the gods, providence, fate
       (てん) (あた)
      ten no atae
      gift from the gods
    IdiomsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC tʰen). Attested in 훈몽자회/訓蒙字會 as Middle Korean .

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 하늘 (haneul cheon))

    1. Hanja form? of (sky; heaven).

    SynonymsEdit

    AntonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit