See also: , , , and ⿰男也
Not to be confused with
U+4ED6, 他
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4ED6

[U+4ED5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4ED7]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 9, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人心木 (OPD), four-corner 24212, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 92, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 370
  • Dae Jaweon: page 195, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 115, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4ED6

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *l̥ʰaːl) : semantic (man) + phonetic (OC *laːlʔ).

Corrupted form of (OC *l̥ʰaːl, *l'aːl), which is found in Zuozhuan.

Etymology edit

Etymology not clear (Schuessler, 2007). Perhaps cognate with (OC *l'al, *l̥ʰjalʔ, “to separate”).

The modern sense of "he, she, it" only emerged after the Han period in colloquial passages, and displaced classical (OC *ɡɯ) and (OC *tjɯ) in mandarin dialects. (Pulleyblank, 1995)

The phonological development from Middle Chinese was irregular. The expected reflex is tuō, which is sometimes used in literary contexts for the classical "other" sense, but in most Mandarin dialects it is read like .

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • thaⁿ/tha - vernacular;
  • tho - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (6)
Final () (94)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter tha
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tʰɑ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tʰɑ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tʰɑ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tʰa/
Li
Rong
/tʰɑ/
Wang
Li
/tʰɑ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tʰɑ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tuō
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
to1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tha ›
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ˁaj/ (E dialect: *l̥ˁ- > MC th-)
English another

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14765
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l̥ʰaːl/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. (chiefly Mandarin, Jin, Xiang, dialectal Wu, originally gender-neutral; nowadays usually referring to males) he; him; she; her
      ―  qù le.  ―  He went away.
    認識认识  ―  Wǒ rènshi .  ―  I know him.
  2. A dummy pronoun. Compare object pronoun (zhī)
    昏天黑地昏天黑地  ―  shuì ge hūntiānhēidì  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    alt. forms:
  3. other; another
      ―  bié wú qiú  ―  have no other request (formal)
  4. a surname

Usage notes edit

  • (personal pronoun):
    • Originally gender-neutral before the 1910s, when the character (, “she; her”) was coined; now usually refers to males (also occasionally refers to females).
      • However, () is only a written distinction; they are all still pronounced as .
    • This term can refer to a person of unknown gender or there is no need to mention gender of the person referred to, while 他/她 (gender binary) is also used; see also Internet slang TA (, “they (singular)”).

Synonyms edit

Most of the words in the table below are gender-neutral in spoken form.

See also edit

Standard Mandarin Chinese personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
您們您们 (nínmen)
3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

  • Wutunhua: ta (he; she; it)

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit


Kanji in this term
ほか
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ほか) or () (hoka or ta

  1. another, other, some other
    この(ほか)にも()(さき)がありますか。
    Kono hoka ni mo yukisaki ga arimasu ka.
    Do you have any other destinations?
    この()(ぎょう)()()するために(かい)()されました。
    Kono jigyō wa ta o risuru tame ni kaishi saremashita.
    This project was started in order to benefit others.
    (ほか)にだれが()(つだ)いに()きますか。
    Hoka ni dare ga tetsudai ni ikimasu ka.
    Who else will go to help you?

Derived terms edit

Idioms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun (nam ta))

  1. Hanja form? of (another, other, some other).

Compounds edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: tha, thà, thè, thơ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit

Zhuang edit

Pronoun edit

  1. Sawndip form of de (he, she, it)