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ChineseEdit

 
day; sun; date; day of the month; Japan (abbrev.)
 
direction; part; side; towards; to; guide; opposite to
simp. and trad.
(日向)
anagram 向日
 
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EtymologyEdit

Orthographic borrowing from Japanese 日向 (Hyūga).

PronunciationEdit


Proper nounEdit

日向

  1. () Hyūga (a city in Miyazaki, Japan)

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
Grade: 3
kun’yomi Irregular

Compound of (hi, sun) +‎ (na, Old Japanese possessive particle) +‎ (ta, direction, side).

The ta element is found in terms such as あなた (anata, you, originally “that side (distant)”), そなた (sonata, you, archaic; originally “that side (nearby)”).[1]

The use of in the spelling is an example of ateji (当て字).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

日向 (hiragana ひなた, rōmaji hinata)

  1. the direction the sun is shining
    • c. 1061, Sagami-shū (poem 525)
      さしてこしひなた (やま) (たの)むには () (あき)らかに ()えざらめやは
      sashite koshi hinata no yama o tanomu ni wa me mo akiraka ni miezarame ya wa
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  2. a sunny spot or place
    Antonym: 日陰 (hikage)
Derived termsEdit

IdiomsEdit

Proper nounEdit

日向 (hiragana ひなた, rōmaji Hinata)

  1. a placename
  2. a female given name
  3. a surname​.

Etymology 2Edit

 
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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
Grade: 3
kun’yomi Irregular

⟨pi1muka⟩ → */pʲimuka//ɸimuka//ɸiũɡa//hjuːɡa/

Shift from Old Japanese 日向 (Pi1muka → Himuka).[1][2]

Equivalent to a compound of (hi, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis form) of verb 向く (muku), “to face (a direction)”).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

Proper nounEdit

日向 (hiragana ひゅうが, rōmaji Hyūga, historical hiragana ひうが)

  1. a placename, especially:
    1. (historical) Short for 日向国 (Hyūga-no-kuni): Hyūga Province, an old province of Japan, corresponding to modern Miyazaki Prefecture on the eastern coast of Kyushu
      Synonym: 日州 (Nisshū)
    2. Short for 日向市 (Hyūga-shi): the city of Hyūga in Miyazaki Prefecture
  2. (historical) an Ise-class battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II (see   Japanese battleship Hyūga on Wikipedia.Wikipedia )
  3. a surname
  4. a female given name
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

日向 (hiragana ひゅうが, rōmaji hyūga, historical hiragana ひうが)

  1. (archaic) facing (opposite) the sun

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
Grade: 3
kun’yomi Irregular

Unknown, possibly a sound change from Old Japanese 日向 (pi1muka → himuka); however, the /-mu-//-ɾ̠u-/ shift is unlikely.

Alternatively, the spelling may be ateji (当て字), with the hiru portion equating to (hiru, daytime), and the ga of uncertain derivation. Compare 春日 (Kasuga).

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

Proper nounEdit

日向 (hiragana ひるが, rōmaji Hiruga)

  1. Short for 日向湖 (Hiruga-ko): one of the 三方五湖 (Mikata Goko, Five Lakes of Mikata) in Fukui Prefecture

Etymology 4Edit

Other various nanori readings.

Proper nounEdit

日向 (hiragana にっこう, rōmaji Nikkō, historical hiragana にちかう)

  1. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひうが, rōmaji Hiuga)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひがの, rōmaji Higano)

  1. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひこう, rōmaji Hikō, historical hiragana ひかう)

  1. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひな, rōmaji Hina)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひなだ, rōmaji Hinada)

  1. a placename

日向 (hiragana ひむかい, rōmaji Himukai, historical hiragana ひむかひ)

  1. a placename
  2. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひむか, rōmaji Himuka)

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひむき, rōmaji Himuki)

  1. a surname​.

日向 (hiragana ひゅが, rōmaji Hyuga)

  1. a surname​.

AnagramsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Old JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

From the Nihon Shoki (720 CE):

幸子湯縣、遊于丹裳小野。時東望之謂左右曰「是國也直出方。」故號其國曰日向也。
The Emperor [Keikō] visited Ko1yu and enjoyed himself at Nimono2wono1. At this time, he looked east and proclaimed left and right, “This province exactly faces the sun at its rising.” Therefore, this province was named Pi1muka.

Compound of (pi1, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, the 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis form) of verb 向く (muku), “to face (a direction)”‎).

Proper nounEdit

日向 (Pi1muka) (kana ひむか)

  1. Short for 日向國 (Pi1muka-no2-kuni): a province in ancient Japan, corresponding to modern Miyazaki Prefecture on the eastern coast of Kyushu
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 103)
      摩蘇餓豫蘇餓能古羅破宇摩奈羅麼譬武伽能古摩多智奈羅麼勾禮能摩差比宇倍之訶茂蘇餓能古羅烏於朋枳瀰能菟伽破須羅志枳
      ma-So1ga yo2 So1ga no2 ko1ra pa uma naraba Pi1muka no2 ko1ma tati naraba Kure no2 ma-sapi1 ubesi ka mo So1ga no2 ko1ra wo opoki1mi1 no2 tukapasurasiki1
      Oh true Soga! The sons of Soga, if they were horses, would be steeds of Himuka, if they were swords, would be blades of Kure! Thus it is fitting, that the sons of Soga should be in service of the great lord.[1]

DescendantsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Torquil Duthie (2014) Man'yōshū and the Imperial Imagination in Early Japan (Brill's Japanese Studies Library), reprint edition, BRILL, →ISBN, pages 227-228