な (romaji na)
- The hiragana syllable な (na). Its equivalent in katakana is ナ (na). It is the twenty-first syllable in the gojūon order; its position is な行あ段 (na-gyō a-dan, “row na, section a”).
- (Hiragana) 平仮名; あぁ, いぃ, うぅゔ, えぇ, おぉ, かゕが, きぎ, くぐ, けゖげ, こご, さざ, しじ, すず, せぜ, そぞ, ただ, ちぢ, つっづ, てで, とど, な, に, ぬ, ね, の, はばぱ, ひびぴ, ふぶぷ, へべぺ, ほぼぽ, ま, み, む, め, も, やゃ, ゆゅ, よょ, ら, り, る, れ, ろ, わゎ, ゐ, ゑ, を, ん, ー, ゝ, ゞ, ゟ
Probably derived from mild emphatic interjection and sentence-final particle ね, itself from Old Japanese, indicating a general sense of admiration or consideration, or hope that the preceding statement comes to pass.
- (masculine, informal, mild emphatic) Used to get someone's attention. Carries generally neutral or slightly positive connotations.
- (informal, mild emphatic) Indicates emotion or mild emphasis. Sentence-final.
- It is often used when you speak to yourself, and can be considered less formal than the agreement-asking particle ね.
/ni aru/ → /naru/ → /na/
- The copula particle used after 形容動詞 (keiyōdōshi, literally “adjective verb”, often referred to in English teaching texts as -na adjective) to make them function as adjectives.
The older なる (naru) form is still used to impart a more formal, archaic, or poetic sense.
- (masculine, informal, added after the dictionary form of a verb) Used to indicate prohibition: don't.
Considered very informal and potentially brusque depending on tone of voice. This would never be used in polite conversation, where the construction ～ないで下さい (~naide kudasai) would be used instead, appended to the imperfective stem of the verb in question. Examples:
- Addressing close friends, children, or possibly subordinates:
- Suru na.
- Don't do that.
- Addressing anyone else:
- Shinaide kudasai.
- (Please) Don't do that.
- (informal, added after the stem form of a verb) An imperative or command: do.
A casual way of issuing commands. Not as rough as the imperative conjugation of a verb. Usage restricted to addressing friends, children, or subordinates.
In spoken Japanese, the prohibitive na and the imperative na are also differentiated by pitch accent patterns. For prohibitive na, the pitch on the suffix follows the pitch on the verb stem. For imperative na, the pitch is higher than on the verb stem.
Roughly in order of politeness:
The hiragana rendering of various other words.
- 名: A name.
- 魚: Fish as a food, particularly as a side dish.
- 菜: Greens as a food, particularly as a side dish.
- 肴: A side dish, be it meat or fish or greens.
- 無: A lack of something.
- 儺: Driving away the gods of disease.