U+306A, な
HIRAGANA LETTER NA

[U+3069]
Hiragana
[U+306B]

Japanese edit

Stroke order
 

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable edit

(na

  1. The hiragana syllable (na). Its equivalent in katakana is (na). It is the twenty-first syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (na-gyō a-dan, row na, section a).
See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

Probably derived from mild emphatic interjection and sentence-final particle , itself from Old Japanese, indicating a general sense of admiration or consideration, or hope that the preceding statement comes to pass.

Interjection edit

(na

  1. (masculine, informal, mild emphatic) used to get someone's attention, generally carries neutral or slightly positive connotations
    ()いたかいna, kiita kai.Hey, did you hear?

Particle edit

(na

  1. (informal, mild emphatic) sentence-final particle indicating emotion or mild emphasis
    Synonym: なあ ()
    そうsō ka na.Huh, is that so.
Usage notes edit

Often used when you are speaking to yourself, and can be considered less formal than the agreement-asking particle .

Etymology 3 edit

/ni aru//naru//na/

From Old Japanese. Originally an abbreviation of (ni, particle) + ある (aru, the attributive form of classical あり ari, “to be”).[1]

Particle edit

(na

  1. copula particle used after 形容動詞 (keiyōdōshi, often referred to in English teaching texts as -na adjective, literally adjective verb) to make them function as adjectives
    (へん)(ひと)hen na hitoa strange person
Usage notes edit

The older なる (naru) form is still used to impart a more formal, archaic, or poetic sense.

(しず)なる(でん)(えん)shizuka naru den'enthe quiet countryside
Descendants edit
  • English: な-adjective

Etymology 4 edit

From Old Japanese. Probably the root na of the negative adjective ない (nai).[2][3] An alternative theory is that this is the imperfective conjugation of negative auxiliary verb (zu).[2]

First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720.[2]

Particle edit

(na

  1. [from 720] (masculine in modern Japanese, informal, added after the dictionary form of a verb) indicates prohibition: don't
    ()Iku na!Don't go!
    ()(だん)(いん)(よう)するMudan de in'yō suru na.Don't quote it without permission.
    ()ぜる危険(きけん)mazeru na kikendangerous: do not mix
Usage notes edit

Considered very informal and potentially brusque depending on tone of voice. This would never be used in polite conversation, where the construction ~ないで下さい (~naide kudasai) would be used instead, appended to the imperfective stem of the verb in question. Examples:

  • Addressing close friends, children, or possibly subordinates:
    するsuru na.Don't do that.
  • Addressing anyone else:
    ないでくださいshinaide kudasai.(Please) Don't do that.

Etymology 5 edit

Clipping of polite imperative auxiliary verb form なさい (nasai).

Suffix edit

(-na

  1. (informal, added after the stem form of a verb) indicates an imperative statement or command: do
    あっち()ぼうや
    Atchi e ikina, bōya.
    Go over there, boy → Get out of the way, boy!
    (すわ)suwarina yo.SitHave a seat.
Usage notes edit
  • A casual way of issuing commands; not as rough as the imperative conjugation of a verb.
  • Usage is restricted to addressing friends, children, or subordinates.
    ()tabenaEat!
  • In spoken Japanese, the prohibitive na and the imperative na are also differentiated by pitch accent patterns. For prohibitive na, the pitch on the suffix follows the pitch on the verb stem; and for imperative na, the pitch is higher than on the verb stem.
    書く (kaku na, “don't write”) → くな
    書き (kaki na, “write”) → か
Synonyms edit

Roughly in order of politeness:

Etymology 6 edit

The readings of various kanji, as derived from native Japonic roots.

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
1
[noun] name
[noun] reputation
4
[noun] greens
J
[pronoun] (archaic, obsolete; or Tsugaru, Niigata) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
Alternative spelling
1
[numeral] (colloquial) seven, 7
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above terms.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , .)

Etymology 7 edit

The readings of various kanji, as borrowed from Chinese.

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
S
[affix] what, which
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above term.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as な.)

(The following entries are uncreated: , , , .)

References edit

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 ”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Old Japanese edit

Etymology 1 edit

Possibly cognate with modern Korean (nal, blade).

Listed in various sources as the na portion in the term (katana), with the na described as meaning (blade, edge).[1][2][3] However, there is no historical attestation for any na reading for this character.

Noun edit

(na)

  1. any sharp and thin cutting implement: a blade, edge
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 4, poem 616:
      ,[4] text here
      劔大刀惜雲吾者無君爾不相而年之經去禮者
      turugi₁-tati na no₂ wosike₁ku mo ware pa nasi ki₁mi₁ ni apazute to₂si no₂ pe₂nureba
      I do not even miss precious you, given the years that have passed without meeting with you.
      [Note: turugi₁-tati (literally “double-edged longsword”) is a pillow word establishing a poetic association with the following na, literally meaning blade or edge and alluding to sharpness and importance. This na could also elliptically mean (na, name) or even (na, you) depending on context, based on the homophonic readings.]
Descendants edit
  • Japanese: (katana)
  • Japanese: (nata) (possibly)

Etymology 2 edit

Noun edit

(na)

  1. middle
    • 三國坂中、此云
      Nawi in Mikuni (read 中 as na)
      天渟中渟中此云農原瀛眞人天皇
      The Emperor Ama-no₂-nunahara oki₁ no₂ mabi₁to₂ (read 中 as nuna)
      譯語田渟倉太珠敷尊
      WOSADA NO₂ NUna KURA NO₂ PUTO₁ TAMASIKI₁ NO₂ MI₁KO₂TO₂
      A son of Kinmei Tennō.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Possibly an apophonic form of (no₂), from assimilation with adjacency to vowels such as a or u. Usage is mostly restricted to fixed expressions like (tanagokoro, palm of the hand, parsed as ta “hand” + na [possessive] + kokoroheart, center”, changing to gokoro due to rendaku), due to such assimilation.

Vovin (2020, pp. 119-123) suggests that this may instead be a plural marker, which is supported by some terms changing due to rendaku, typically a contraction of -no₂- or -ni-.

Particle edit

(na)

  1. genitive case marker
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Etymology 4 edit

Various other terms.

Noun edit

(na)

  1. : name
  2. : written character
  3. , , : side dish, especially fish, greens, etc.

Pronoun edit

(na)

  1. : first-person singular pronoun: I, me; second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
  2. , : third-person reflexive pronoun: one, oneself, itself

References edit

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. ^ Satake, Akihiro; Hideo Yamada; Rikio Kudō; Masao Ōtani; Yoshiyuki Yamazaki (c. 759) Shin Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikei 1: Man’yōshū 1 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, published 1999, →ISBN.