U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təwŋ/
Li
Rong
/tuŋ/
Wang
Li
/tuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤoŋ/ (< *tˤoŋʔ ?)
English east

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2435
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toːŋ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. east
  2. eastern
  3. eastward
  4. host
    /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
  5. landlord; owner
    /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
    /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder

Coordinate termsEdit

  • (nán, “south”)
  • 西 (, “west”)
  • (běi, “north”)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. east

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (tuwng, east).

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana とう, romaji )

  1. A surname​.
  2. Abbreviation of 関東(Kantō): the Kantō region
  3. Abbreviation of 東国(Tōgoku): eastern Japan

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ひむかし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

*/pimukasi//fimukaɕi//himukaɕi/

From Old Japanese. Compound of (hi, sun) +‎ 向か(muka, facing, direction) +‎ (shi, wind, direction).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひむかし, romaji himukashi)

  1. (obsolete) east

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ひんがし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/pimukasi//pimugasi//fimugaɕi//fingaɕi//hingaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier pimukasi.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひんがし, romaji hingashi)

  1. (obsolete) east
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)
      むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
ひがし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/hingaɕi//higaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier hingashi. Now the standard word for east.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひがし, romaji higashi)

  1. east

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana ひがし, romaji Higashi)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
あずま
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Ultimate derivation unknown. A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens) + (tsuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あずま, romaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. east, Eastern Japan

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana あずま, romaji Azuma)

  1. A male given name
  2. A surname​.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(dong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: dong, McCune-Reischauer: tong, Yale: tong)
  • Name (hangeul): 동녘 (revised: dongnyeok, McCune-Reischauer: tongnyŏk, Yale: tongnyekh)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

CompoundsEdit


OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

ReadingsEdit

  • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
  • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

CompoundsEdit

  • 東風 (くち, kuchi): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東風 (くちかじ, kuchikaji): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東京 (とーちょー, tōchō): Tokyo
  • 広東瓜 (くゎんとぅうい, kwantuui): watermelon

EtymologyEdit

From 上り(agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đông, đang, tông)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

YoronEdit

KanjiEdit

ReadingsEdit

  • Native: あがり (agari)

EtymologyEdit

From 上り(agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east