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U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition or ⿻)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.
Note:
  • dang1 - colloquial;
  • dong1 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /təwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /tuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁoŋ/ (< *tˁoŋʔ ?)
    English east

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2435
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*toːŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. east
    2. host
      /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
    3. landlord; owner
      /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
      /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder
    4. (Teochew) side

    Coordinate termsEdit

    • (nán, “south”)
    • 西 (, “west”)
    • (běi, “north”)

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. east
    2. Short for 東京 (Tōkyō): Tokyo
    3. spring (Wu Xing)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ).

    PronunciationEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. Abbreviation of 関東 (Kantō): the Kantō region of Japan
    2. Abbreviation of 東国 (Tōgoku): a historical administrative division of Japan, corresponding to the modern Kantō and Tōkai regions
    3. a surname

    NounEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. (music) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひがし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /finɡaɕi//fiɡaɕi//hiɡaɕi/

    Sound shift from earlier hingashi (see below).

    Now the standard word for east.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ひがし, rōmaji higashi)

    1. east (compass point)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    2. the Orient
      Synonym: 東洋 (tōyō)
    3. an easterly (wind blowing from the east)
      Synonym: 東風 (ayu, kochi, kochikaze, tōfū, higashikaze)
    4. (sumo) higher-ranked wrestlers listed on the right of a banzuke
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    5. an Eastern Bloc country
      Synonym: 東側 (higashigawa)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    6. (regional, historical) Kamakura and/or Edo, as opposed to Kyoto and Osaka
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    7. (theater) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana ひがし, rōmaji Higashi)

    1. (historical) a red-light district in Edo, where it is today in Fukagawa, Kōtō Ward
      as it was located east of Edo Castle
    2. (Buddhism) Short for 東本願寺 (Higashi Hongan-ji): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonym: お東 (o-Higashi)
    3. a place name, especially the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan
    4. a surname

    VerbEdit

    する (hiragana ひがしする, rōmaji higashi suru)

    1. to go east
    ConjugationEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひんがし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    */pʲimukasi//pimʉɡasi//fimʉɡaɕi//finɡaɕi//hinɡaɕi/

    Attested in The Tale of Genji (c. 1021).

    Sound shift from earlier pimukasi (see below).[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ひんがし, rōmaji hingashi)

    1. (obsolete) east
      • 10th century, Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)[4]
        むかし、 (ひんがし) () (でう) (おほ) (きさき) (みや)おはしましける、西 (にし) (たい) ()人有 (ひとあり)けり。
        Mukashi, hingashi no gojō ni ōmisaki no miya owashimashikeru, nishi no tai ni sumu hito arikeri.
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひむかし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    *⟨pi1 muka si⟩ → */pʲimukasi//fimukaɕi//himukaɕi/

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū dated 759 CE, but consistently spelled with this single kanji rather than in man'yōgana, thus leaving the reading unspecified.[5]

    Originally a compound of (hi, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, facing, direction, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku), “to face a direction”).[1][2] The final -shi is possibly either (shi, wind, direction, obsolete) or the suffix (-shi), the adnominal form of (-ki, classical past tense indicator).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ひむかし, rōmaji himukashi)

    1. (obsolete) east

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あずま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

    From Old Japanese.[1][2]

    Ultimate derivation unknown. A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens) + (tsuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あずま, rōmaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

    1. (archaic) east
      • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 100)
        ... () () (𛀁) () () () () () () () () () () (𛀁) () () () () () () () () () () (𛀁) () () () () () () ()... [Man'yōgana]
        ... () () (あめ) ()へり (なか) ()あづま ()へり () () (ひな) ()へり... [Modern spelling]
        ...hotsue wa ame o oeri nakatsue wa azuma o oeri shizue wa hina o oeri...
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    2. (archaic, by extension) the lands east of the (miyako, capital)
    3. (regional, historical) Kamakura and/or Edo, as opposed to Kyoto and Osaka
    4. Short for 東琴 (azumagoto): a six-stringed Japanese zither
    5. Short for 東下駄 (azumageta): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana あずま, rōmaji Azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

    1. a place name
    2. a female given name
    3. a surname

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Borrowed from Mandarin (dōng).

    Compare Wu (ton), Hakka (tûng), Min Nan (tong).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (katakana トン, rōmaji ton)

    1. (mahjong) east wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of east wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana とん, rōmaji Ton)

    1. a surname

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Nominalization of the stem of adjective 明らか (akiraka, clear).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana あきら, rōmaji Akira)

    1. a surname
    2. a male given name

    Etymology 8Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Nominalization of verb 上る, 登る (noboru, to ascend, rise).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana のぼる, rōmaji Noboru)

    1. a male given name

    Etymology 9Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin, start).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

    1. a surname
    2. a male given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, →ISBN
    5. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 1, poem 48), text here

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (dong)

    1. east; eastern

    CompoundsEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
    • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

    CompoundsEdit

    • 東風 (くち, kuchi): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
    • 東風 (くちかじ, kuchikaji): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
    • 東京 (とーちょー, tōchō): Tokyo
    • 広東瓜 (くゎんとぅうい, kwantuui): watermelon

    EtymologyEdit

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đông, đang)

    1. east; eastern

    YoronEdit

    KanjiEdit

    ReadingsEdit

    • Native: あがり (agari)

    EtymologyEdit

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east