See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
東-order.gif

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
東-oracle.svg 東-bronze.svg 東-silk.svg 東-bigseal.svg 東-seal.svg

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean "east".[1] This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology.

Han characterEdit

(radical 75 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ [1]
  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (5)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/ /təwŋ/ /tuŋ/ /tuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
dōng ‹ tuwng › /*tˤoŋ (< *tˤoŋʔ ?)/ east

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
2435 0 /*toːŋ/ 種(種籽)初文,甲金文象種皮甲坼萌生根芽,參敕字陳字注

NounEdit

  1. east
  2. host
    做東做东 (zuòdōng, “to be host”)
  3. landlord, owner
    房東房东 (fángdōng, “landlord”)
    股東股东 (gǔdōng, “shareholder”)

Coordinate termsEdit

  • ‎(south)
  • 西 ‎(west)
  • ‎(north)

AdjectiveEdit

  1. eastern, eastward

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. east

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(tuwng, east).

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana とう, romaji )

  1. A surname​.
  2. Abbreviation of 関東 ‎(Kantō): the Kantō region
  3. Abbreviation of 東国 ‎(Tōgoku): eastern Japan

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ひむかし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

*/pimukasi//fimukaɕi//himukaɕi/

From Old Japanese. Compound of ‎(hi, sun) +‎ 向か ‎(muka, facing, direction) +‎ ‎(shi, wind, direction).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひむかし, romaji himukashi)

  1. (obsolete) east

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ひんがし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/pimukasi//pimugasi//fimugaɕi//fingaɕi//hingaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier pimukasi.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひんがし, romaji hingashi)

  1. # (obsolete) east
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)
      むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
ひがし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/hingaɕi//higaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier hingashi. Now the standard word for east.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ひがし, romaji higashi)

  1. east

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana ひがし, romaji Higashi)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
あずま
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

/aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Ultimate derivation unknown. A speculative origin might be a compound of ‎(ama, sky, heavens) + ‎(tsuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あずま, romaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. east, Eastern Japan

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana あずま, romaji Azuma)

  1. A male given name
  2. A surname​.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(dong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: dong, McCune-Reischauer: tong, Yale: tong)
  • Name (hangeul): 동녘 (revised: dongnyeok, McCune-Reischauer: tongnyŏk, Yale: tongnyekh)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

CompoundsEdit


OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

ReadingsEdit

  • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
  • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

CompoundsEdit

  • 東風 (くち, kuchi): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東風 (くちかじ, kuchikaji): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東京 (とーちょー, tōchō): Tokyo
  • 広東瓜 (くゎんとぅうい, kwantuui): watermelon

EtymologyEdit

From 上り ‎(agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đông, đang, tông)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

YoronEdit

KanjiEdit

ReadingsEdit

  • Native: あがり (agari)

EtymologyEdit

From 上り ‎(agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east
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