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U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition or ⿻)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.
Note:
  • dang1 - colloquial;
  • dong1 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /təwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /tuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    dōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    dōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tˁoŋ/ (< *tˁoŋʔ ?)
    English east

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2435
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*toːŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. east
    2. host
      /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
    3. landlord; owner
      /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
      /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder
    4. (Teochew) side

    Coordinate termsEdit

    • (nán, “south”)
    • 西 (, “west”)
    • (běi, “north”)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とう
    Grade: 2
    kan’on

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ).

    PronunciationEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. Short for 関東 (Kantō): the Kantō region of Japan
    2. Short for 東国 (Tōgoku): a historical administrative division of Japan, corresponding to the modern Kantō and Tōkai regions
    3. Short for 東京 (Tōkyō): Tokyo
    4. a surname
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. (music) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana とう, rōmaji )

    1. east

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひがし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    /finɡaɕi//fiɡaɕi//hiɡaɕi/

    Sound shift from hingashi (see below).

    Now the standard word for east.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ひがし, rōmaji higashi)

    1. east (compass point)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    2. the Orient
      Synonym: 東洋 (tōyō)
    3. an easterly (wind blowing from the east)
      Synonym: 東風 (kochi, kochikaze, tōfū, higashikaze)
    4. (sumo) higher-ranked wrestlers listed on the right of a banzuke
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    5. an Eastern Bloc country
      Synonym: 東側 (higashigawa)
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    6. (regional, historical) Kamakura and/or Edo, as opposed to Kyoto and Osaka
      Antonym: 西 (nishi)
    7. (theater) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana ひがし, rōmaji Higashi)

    1. (historical) a red-light district in Edo, where it is today in Fukagawa, Kōtō Ward
      as it was located east of Edo Castle
    2. (Buddhism) Short for 東本願寺 (Higashi Hongan-ji): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonym: お東 (o-Higashi)
    3. a placename, especially the name of a ward in various cities throughout Japan
    4. a surname

    VerbEdit

    する (suru conjugation, hiragana ひがしする, rōmaji higashi suru)

    1. to go east
    ConjugationEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひんがし
    Grade: 2
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry at ひんがし.
    ひんがし【東】
    [noun](archaic, obsolete) the east
    (This term, , is a kanji spelling of ひんがし.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あずま
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings 吾妻
    吾嬬

    /aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

    From Old Japanese,[1][2] itself of unknown derivation.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あずま, rōmaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

    1. (archaic) east
    2. (archaic) the lands east of the (miyako, capital)
    3. (regional, historical) during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, the Kamakura region or its titular 幕府 (bakufu, shogunate), as opposed to the imperial capital of Kyoto
    4. (regional, historical) during the Edo period, the region around Edo
    5. Short for 東つ (azumatsu): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    6. Short for 東琴 (azumagoto): a six-stringed Japanese zither
    7. Short for 東下駄 (azumageta): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana あずま, rōmaji Azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

    1. a placename
    2. a female given name
    3. a surname

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    とん
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Borrowed from Mandarin (dōng).

    Compare Wu (ton), Hakka (tûng), Min Nan (tong).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (katakana トン, rōmaji ton)

    1. (mahjong) east wind (mahjong tile)
      Hypernym: 風牌 (kazehai, fanpai)
    2. (mahjong) a (yaku, winning hand) with a triplet or quad of east wind tiles; depending on wind round and player's seat wind, it is worth either 1 or 2 (han, doubles)
      Hypernym: 役牌 (yakuhai, yaku-pai)
    Derived termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana とん, rōmaji Ton)

    1. a surname

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of the stem of adjective 明らか (akiraka, clear).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana あきら, rōmaji Akira)

    1. a surname
    2. a male given name

    Etymology 7Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of verb 上る, 登る (noboru, to ascend, rise).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana のぼる, rōmaji Noboru)

    1. a male given name

    Etymology 8Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    nanori

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb 始める (hajimeru, to begin, start).

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

    1. a surname
    2. a male given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ). Attested in the Hunmong jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527, as Middle Korean 도ᇰ (Yale: twong).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 동녘 (dongnyeok dong))

    1. Hanja form? of (east; eastern).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
    • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, or ascends.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east

    Old JapaneseEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    • 東風 (ayu, *koti, *kotikaze)

    Etymology 1Edit

    Ultimate derivation unknown.

    A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens, combining form) +‎ (tuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (aduma) (kana あづま)

    1. east
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 100)
        ...本都延波阿米袁淤弊理那加都延波阿豆麻袁淤弊理志豆延波比那袁淤弊理...
        ...potuye pa ame2 wo ope1ri nakatuye pa aduma wo ope1ri siduye pa pi1na wo ope1ri...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. the lands east of the (mi1yako1, capital)
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4097), text here
        須賣呂伎能御代佐可延牟等阿頭麻奈流美知乃久夜麻爾金花佐久
        sume1ro2ki1 no2 mi1yo2 sakayemu to2 aduma naru Mi1tino2ku-yama ni kugane pana saku
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (azuma)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Found in one poem of the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE), but consistently spelled with this single kanji rather than in man'yōgana, thus leaving the reading unspecified.

    Originally a compound of (pi1, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, facing, direction, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku), “to face a direction”).[1][2] The final -si is possibly either (si, wind, direction, obsolete) or the suffix (-si), the adnominal form of (-ki1, classical past tense indicator).

    NounEdit

    (*pi1mukasi) (kana ひむかし)

    1. east
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 1, poem 48), text here
        野炎立所見而反見為者月西渡
        *pi1mukasi no2 no1 ni kagi1ro1pi2 no2 tatu mi1yete kape1rimi1 sureba tuki2 katabuki1nu
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (higashi)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (đông, đang)

    1. east; eastern

    YoronEdit

    KanjiEdit

    • Native: あがり (agari)

    EtymologyEdit

    From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, or ascends.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

    1. east