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U+6771, 東
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6771

[U+6770]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6772]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75 +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木田 (DW), four-corner 50906, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 513, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14499
  • Dae Jaweon: page 899, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1165, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6771

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ, *toːŋʔ
*toːŋ, *toːŋs
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋ
*toːŋs

Phonetic borrowing – originally represented a bag tied at both ends (like a cellophane-wrapped candy with the ends twisted), and was later borrowed phonetically to mean “east”. This borrowing may have been influenced by reinterpreting the character as the sun () rising behind a tree (), which is the traditional (though incorrect) etymology, as given in Shuowen.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • tang - colloquial;
  • tong - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/təwŋ/
Li
Rong
/tuŋ/
Wang
Li
/tuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˤoŋ/ (< *tˤoŋʔ ?)
English east

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2435
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*toːŋ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. east
  2. host
    /   ―  zuòdōng  ―  to be host
  3. landlord; owner
    /   ―  fángdōng  ―  landlord
    /   ―  dōng  ―  shareholder

Coordinate termsEdit

  • (nán, “south”)
  • 西 (, “west”)
  • (běi, “north”)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. east

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
とう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC tuŋ). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana とう, rōmaji )

  1. A surname​.
  2. Abbreviation of 関東 (Kantō): the Kantō region of Japan
  3. Abbreviation of 東国 (Tōgoku): an historical administrative division of Japan, corresponding to the modern Kantō and Tōkai regions

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ひむかし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

*/pimukasi//fimukasi//himukaɕi/

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū dated 759 CE, but consistently spelled with the single kanji rather than in man'yōgana, thus leaving the reading unspecified.[1] Compound of (hi, sun) +‎ 向か (muka, facing, direction, the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 向く (muku, to face a direction)) +‎ (shi, wind, direction).[2][3]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ひむかし, rōmaji himukashi)

  1. (obsolete) east

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ひんがし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/pimukasi//pimuɡasi//fimuɡasi//finɡasi//hinɡaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier pimukasi.[2][3] Attested in The Tale of Genji, no later than 1021 CE.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ひんがし, rōmaji hingashi)

  1. (obsolete) east
    • 10th century: Ise Monogatari (chapter 4, page 82)[4]
      むかし、東(ひんがし)の五条に大后の宮おはしましける、西の対に住む人有けり。

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
ひがし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/finɡasi//hiɡaɕi/

Sound shift from earlier hingashi. Now the standard word for east.[2][3]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ひがし, rōmaji higashi)

  1. east
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana ひがし, rōmaji Higashi)

  1. A surname​.
  2. any of various places in Japan

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
あずま
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/aduma//ad͡zuma//azuma/

From Old Japanese.[2][3] Ultimate derivation unknown. A speculative origin might be a compound of (ama, sky, heavens) + (tsuma, edge, beginning), but the elision of the ma in ama does not follow normal patterns.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あずま, rōmaji azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. (archaic) east
  2. (archaic, by extension) eastern Japan
  3. Abbreviation of 東琴 (azumagoto): a six-stringed Japanese zither
  4. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the Edo area (specifically used in the Kansai region, especially around Kyōto and Ōsaka)

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana あずま, rōmaji Azuma, historical hiragana あづま)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.
  3. any of various places in Japan

(hiragana あづま, rōmaji Azuma)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
とん
Grade: 2
Irregular

Borrowing from Chinese , borrowed specifically as mahjong terminology. Compare Wu (ton), Hakka (tûng), Min Nan (tong).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(katakana トン, rōmaji ton)

  1. (mahjong) east wind (tile)
  2. (mahjong) a (yaku, hand) of a triplet or quad of east wind tiles, see 役牌
Derived termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana とん, rōmaji Ton)

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 7Edit

Other various nanori readings.

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana あきら, rōmaji Akira)

  1. A surname​.
  2. A male given name

(hiragana あず, rōmaji Azu)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

(hiragana あずきよ, rōmaji Azukiyo)

  1. A female given name

(hiragana こちざき, rōmaji Kochizaki)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana さき, rōmaji Saki)

  1. A female given name

(hiragana たかとう, rōmaji Takatō)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana とうあ, rōmaji Tōa)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana とうはま, rōmaji Tōhama)

  1. A surname​.

(hiragana のぼる, rōmaji Noboru)

  1. A male given name

(hiragana はじめ, rōmaji Hajime)

  1. A surname​.
  2. A male given name

(hiragana ひがしつる, rōmaji Higashitsuru)

  1. A surname​.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 1, poem 48), text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ Horiuchi, Hideaki; Ken Akiyama (1997) Taketori Monogatari, Ise Monogatari, Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, ISBN 4-00-240017-4
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(dong)

  1. east; eastern

CompoundsEdit


OkinawanEdit

KanjiEdit

ReadingsEdit

  • Native: く (ku), くち (kuchi), あがり (agari)
  • Nonnative: とー (tō), とぅ (tu)

CompoundsEdit

  • 東風 (くち, kuchi): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東風 (くちかじ, kuchikaji): east wind, easterly wind, eastern wind
  • 東京 (とーちょー, tōchō): Tokyo
  • 広東瓜 (くゎんとぅうい, kwantuui): watermelon

EtymologyEdit

From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đông, đang)

  1. east; eastern

YoronEdit

KanjiEdit

ReadingsEdit

  • Native: あがり (agari)

EtymologyEdit

From 上り (agari, ascent, rise) in reference to the direction where the sun rises, ascends.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あがり, romaji agari)

  1. east